Common Human Diseases and Pathogenes

We studied many diseases, causes, and prevention and cure in the previous part. Now we will be able to know about some other disease, pathogens, and their cure that are commonly found.

Diseases caused by Bacteria 

  • Tuberculosis
    • Pathogen-Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    • Transmission through-Infection spreads from person to person by various mediums like -air, cough, and sneeze of the infected person.
    • Incubation period- It takes two weeks to ten weeks in an infected person the bacteria show its effect.
    • Symptom – Infected person shows various symptoms like-Persistent fever and coughing, Chest pain, and blood patches found with the sputum. The weakness of a person.
    • Prevention and Cure-
      • The patient should be isolated to avoid the spread of infection.
      • BCG vaccination should be given to every child as a preventive measure. The place where a person lives should be airy, neat, and with clean surroundings.
      • Medicines as antibiotics should be given with the consultation of Doctors.
  • Typhoid
    • Pathogen: Bacterium Salmonella typhi
    • Mode of transmission: Transmitsthrough contaminated food and water.
    • Incubation period: About 1-3 weeks
    • Symptoms- It has symptoms including high fever, headache, stomach pain, weakness, vomiting, and loose stools.
    • Prevention and Cure-
      • At the time of eating and drinking, everyone should care about hygiene.
      • Avoid taking exposed food and drinks as they may be contaminated.
      • Proper sanitation and cleanliness should be maintained regularly.
      • Immediate treatment with the consultation of a doctor.
  • Cholera
    • Pathogen – Bacterium Vibrio cholera
    • Mode of transmission: Contaminated food and water.
    • Symptoms- Acute diarrhea, watery stool, Muscular cramps, and Loss of minerals can lead to death.
    • Prevention and cure-
      • vaccination should be given for cholera, Electrolytes (Na, K, sugar) dissolved in water should be given to the patient to check or avoid dehydration.
      • It is available on the market as ORS–oral hydration solution for dehydration.
      • proper sanitation and careful disposal of waste of an infected person.
      • medical treatment.
vibrio cholerae- vector of The disease cholera
  • Diphtheria
    • Pathogen: Rod-shaped bacterium Cornybacterium diphthereae
    • Mode of Transmission: Transmits through the air, droplet infection.
    • Symptoms-Fever, Sore throat and restless feeling, the problem with breathing, air passage may get disturbed and leads to death.
    • Prevention and cure-
      • Medical treatment should be given to the patient immediately.
      • DPT vaccine is available and should be introduced to children.
      • A neat and clean environment should be provided.
  • Leprosy- (Hansen’s disease)
    • Pathogen: The pathogen of leprosy is the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae.
    • Mode of transmission: It transmits through prolonged contact with an infected person. So it is not very contagious, a long period of contact can spread the infection.
    • Symptoms- it mainly affects the skin as changes skin colour, reduces sense in skin, hands, feet. It affects the eyes, nose, and also peripheral nerves.
    • Prevention and Cure– Immediatetreatment can avoid many disabilities so medical treatment should be provided to the person as soon as possible.

There are some diseases found caused by pathogens other than viruses and bacteria, like protozoans, and worms.

Diseases caused by protozoans

  • Malaria
    • Pathogen- The pathogen responsible for malaria is different species of Plasmodium. five species of plasmodium infect humans. P. Falciparum causes most of the death by malaria. P. vivex, P.ovale, P. malaria causes mild malaria.
    • Mode of transmission: It transmits through the bite of female Anopheles mosquitoes. Malaria has two phases during its infective period, the first phase in mosquitoes and the second and final phase of infection in humans through plasmodium.
    • Symptoms- chilliness and shivering followed by the fever which repeats itself after sweating and being normal for a few hours. The patient becomes weak which leads to anemia, if proper treatment is not given to the patient, the secondary complication may be fatal as it can last to the death of the person.
transmission of the disease malaria
  • Prevention and cure-
    • Use of mosquito net and mosquito repellents.
    • The sprinkling of kerosene oil in ditches or other open spaces where water gets collected should be done.
    • Treatment should be started on time.
    • Treatment- Antimalarial medication.
  • Amoebiasis (Amoebic dysentery)
    • Pathogen: caused by amoeba Entamoeba histolytica
    • Mode of transmission: Transmits through Contaminated food and water.
    • Symptoms- It shows very common symptoms, or maybe no symptoms, or severe symptoms like abdominal pain, diarrhoea, or bloody diarrhoea.
    • Prevention and Cure-Sanitation should be maintained properly, Vegetables and fruits must be properly washed before eating. Antibiotics may be given to the patients with a consult of a doctor.

Diseases caused by worms (helminths)

  • Filariasis-
    • Pathogen: Filarial worm (roundworm), various types of filarial worms are found, are divided into three groups –
    • Lymphatic filariasis- Wuchereria bancrofti
    • Subcutaneous filariasis- loa-loa
    • Serous cavity filariasis- Mansonella perstans
    • elephantiasis– thickening of the skin and underlying tissues- shows edema.
Common Human Diseases and Pathogenes

                                                 Elephantiasis

  • Mode of transmission: Spreads through bites of mosquitoes – Aedes and Culex, and other blood-sucking insects.
  • Symptoms- Mild fever, Collection of endothelial cells and metabolites in the wall of lymph vessels,
  • Prevention and cure- Neat clean environment, mosquito repellent, dirty places should be cleaned. A sprinkling of chemicals for killing mosquitoes and flies. Drugs should be administered during proper medication.

*** We will discuss in detail Diseases like AIDS and other STDs in another blog. Thank you

for more types of human diseases click here – Common Human Diseases part-1

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