Important discoveries in physics and names of physicists

Name of Physicist Major discovery/ Contribution Country of Origin
Archimedes Principle of buoyancy: The principle states that the upward buoyant force exerted on a body immersed in a fluid, whether fully or partially, is equal to the weight of the fluid that the body displaces.

Principle of the lever

Greece
Galileo Galilei Law of inertia Italy
Christiaan Huygens Wave theory of light: According to Huygens, every point that a luminous disturbance meets turns into a source of the spherical wave itself. The sum of the secondary waves (are the result of disturbance), determines the form of the new wave. Holland
Isaac Newton The universal law of gravitation

Laws of motion;

Reflecting telescope

U.K
Michael Faraday Laws of electromagnetic induction U.K
James Clerk Maxwell Electromagnetic theory;

Light as an electromagnetic wave

U.K
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz Generation of electromagnetic waves Germany
J.C. Bose Ultra short radio waves India
W.K Roentgen X-rays Germany
J.J. Thomson Electron U.K
Marie Sklodowska Curie Discovery of radium and polonium;

Studied on natural radioactivity

Poland
Albert Einstein Explanation of photoelectric effect;

Theory of relativity

Germany
Victor Francis Hess Cosmic radiation Austria
R.A. Millikan Measurement of electronic charge U.S.A
Earnest Rutherford Nuclear model of an atom New Zealand
Neils Bohr Quantum model of the hydrogen atom Denmark
C.V. Raman Inelastic scattering of light by molecules India
Louis Victor de Borglie Wave nature of matter France
M.N. Saha Thermal ionization India
S.N. Bose Quantum statistic India
Wolfgang Pauli Exclusion principle Austria
Enrico Fermi Controlled nuclear fission Italy
Werner Heisenberg Quantum mechanics;

Uncertainty principle

Germany
Paul Dirac Relativistic theory of electron;

Quantum statistics

U.K
Edwin Hubble Expanding universe U.S.A
Ernest Orlando Lawrence Cyclotron U.S.A
James Chadwick Neutron U.K
Hideki Yukawa Theory of nuclear forces Japan
Homi Jehangir Bhabha Cascade process of cosmic radiation India
Lev Davidovich Landau Theory of condensed matter;

Liquid helium

Russia
S. Chandrasekhar Chandrasekhar limit, Structure, and evolution of stars India
John Bardeen Transistors;

Theory of superconductivity;

U.S.A
C.H. Townes Maser;

Laser

U.S.A
Abdus Salam Unification of weak and electromagnetic interaction Pakistan

 

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  • NOBEL PRIZE 2021 - PCSSTUDIES - Current Affaires · February 23, 2022 at 4:58 pm

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