The Socio-Religious Reforms and Organizations (Movements for social and religious reforms in India up to the 20th century) played a vital role in the upliftment of India.

Brahmo Samaj- Founded in August 1828
  • By Raja Ram Mohan Roy– Also called the father of Indian renaissance 
  • Earlier it was Brahmo Sabha, later Brahmo Samaj in Calcutta.
  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1772- 1833)– Also called Father of Indian Renaissance and the maker of Modern India. In 1814 founded the Atmiya Sabha in Calcutta.
  • Adi Brahmo Samaj was later formed by Debendra Nath Tagore,
  • Keshub Chandra Sen associated with Brahmo Samaj of India.
  • The Brahmo Samaj worked on various reforms of religious, social, and cultural reforms.
  • They opposed incarnation, sacrifices, Idolatry, priest existence, Sati, and other reforms in Hinduism.
  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy Brought journal -Sambad kaumudi (1821), Mirat-ul-Akbar
  • Tattva Bodhini Patrika by Devendra Nath Tagore
  • Indian Mirror by Keshub Chandra Sen
  • Tattva kaumudi, The Indian messenger, The Sanjibari, The Nayabharat, and Prabasi by Sadharan Brahmo samaj.
Young Bengal Movement- (1826-1831)
  • Founded by Anglo Indian – Henry Louis Vivian Derozio (Taught at Hindu College). Other people associated with the organization were Rasik Krishna Mullick, Tarachand choker-Vati, and Krishna Mohan Banerjee.
  • He supported Love, liberty, equality, Freedom, and Women’s right also.
Dharma Sabha – 1830
  • Founded by Radhakant Deb in Calcutta.
  • The theme of Dharma Sabha was to counter Brahmo samaj. It helped in spreading western education, condemned radical and liberal reforms.
Wahabi Movement- 1820
  • Founded by Syed Ahmed.
  • Other people associated with the movement – Vilayat Ali, Shah Muhhamad Hussain, Farhat Hussain, and Inayat Ali.
  • Started from Rohilakhand and spread in Bengal, central provinces
  • This was opposed British and they also fought against Sikhs.
Namdhari or Kuka Movement- 1849
  • The movement across 1849-1871, founded by Balak Singh and Baba Ram Singh
  • This movement among Sikhs, in NWF provinces and Punjab.
  • This worked for various reforms in social, cultural, and religious reforms.
Rahnumai Mazdayasanan Sabha (Religious reform association for Parsis)- 1851
  • Founded by S.S Bengali, Naoroji Furdonji, Dada Bhai Nauroji
  • For improving the social conditions of Parsis.
  • The journal Rast Goftar is associated with this organization.
Prarthana Samaj- 1867
  • Founded by Atmaram Pandurang
  • In Bombay
  • The chief mentor was Govind Ranade
  • They worked for the upliftment of women, the abolition of caste discrimination, and religious reforms from orthodoxy.
  • widow remarriage and for raising of the age of marriage for both male and female.
Indian reform association – 1870
  • Founded by Keshub Chandra Sen in Calcutta.
  • Against child marriage, for the uplift of women status in society, to legalize the Brahmo Type marriage.
Satyasodhak Samaj- 1873
  • founded by Jyotiba fule, in Maharashtra.
  • This was against the domination of Brahman and for the upliftment of the lower caste.
  • They also worked for untouchables and widows.
Arya Samaj -1875
  • Founded by Dayanand Saraswati (Mulshankar) -1824-1883- in Bombay.
  • He took inspiration from Vedas.
  • His slogan was- “Back to Vedas”
  • Satyarth Prakash was associated with his views.
  • Arya Samaj fixed age of – 25 yrs. and 16 yrs. for boys and girls respectively.
  • They asserted that the Veda is the book of true knowledge.
  • Dayanand Anglo Vedic (DAV) schools were established.
The Theosophical Society- 1875
  • Founded by Madam H.P Blavatsky (1831-91) was a Russian and Col. H.S. Olcott (1832-1907) an American.
  • Annie Besant was one of its presidents.
  • Founded in New York but its headquarters shifted to Adyar near Madras.
  • Worked for social and religious reforms.
Seva Sadan- 1885
  • Founded by Behramji M.Malabari in Bombay
  • They worked for various reforms in the social and cultural field.
  • This was against child marriage, forced widowhood, and helping women who were socially suppressed.
Indian National Social Conference – 1887
  • Founded by M.G.Ranade and Raghunath Rao in Bombay
  • Worked for social reforms.
Deva Samaj- 1887
  • Founded by Shiv Narayan Agnihotri in Lahore.
  • They followed The Ides of Brahmo Samaj in religious reforms.
  • Social code Against bribe, gambling, alcohol consumption, and non-vegetarian food.
Ramkrishna Mission- 1897
  • Founded by Vivekanand (NaredraNath Dutta)- (1863-1902) in Bengal.
  • His guru was Ramkrishna Paramhansa (1834- 1886)
  • worked to revive Hinduism on the basis of Ancient India’s religious Text and concept of Vedanta and Gita and other books.
  • They were against cast discriminations, superstitions in Hinduism.
  • They aimed to uplift women’s status and education system.
  • Swami Vivekananda made a great impression at the Chicago Parliament of religion in 1893.
The servants of India Society- 1905
  • Founded by Gopal Krishna Gokhale in Bombay
  • for Women uplift.
  • For improvement of the condition of tribals.
The Indian Women’s Association- 1917
  • Founded by Annie Besant in Madras
  • for the upliftment of Indian Women
  • All India women conferences held for women’s betterment.

 

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7 Comments

Hare krishna · December 3, 2020 at 6:07 am

Good work, informative. Keep it up.

    pcsclasses · December 3, 2020 at 9:10 am

    Thank you for your valuable appreciation…

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