The Socio-Religious Reforms and Organizations (Movements for social and religious reforms in India up to the 20th century) played a vital role in the upliftment of India.
Brahmo Samaj- Founded in August 1828
- By Raja Ram Mohan Roy– Also called the father of Indian renaissance
- Earlier it was Brahmo Sabha, later Brahmo Samaj in Calcutta.
- Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1772- 1833)– Also called Father of Indian Renaissance and the maker of Modern India. In 1814 founded the Atmiya Sabha in Calcutta.
- Adi Brahmo Samaj was later formed by Debendra Nath Tagore,
- Keshub Chandra Sen associated with Brahmo Samaj of India.
- The Brahmo Samaj worked on various reforms of religious, social, and cultural reforms.
- They opposed incarnation, sacrifices, Idolatry, priest existence, Sati, and other reforms in Hinduism.
- Raja Ram Mohan Roy Brought journal -Sambad kaumudi (1821), Mirat-ul-Akbar
- Tattva Bodhini Patrika by Devendra Nath Tagore
- Indian Mirror by Keshub Chandra Sen
- Tattva kaumudi, The Indian messenger, The Sanjibari, The Nayabharat, and Prabasi by Sadharan Brahmo samaj.
Young Bengal Movement- (1826-1831)
- Founded by Anglo Indian – Henry Louis Vivian Derozio (Taught at Hindu College). Other people associated with the organization were Rasik Krishna Mullick, Tarachand choker-Vati, and Krishna Mohan Banerjee.
- He supported Love, liberty, equality, Freedom, and Women’s right also.
Dharma Sabha – 1830
- Founded by Radhakant Deb in Calcutta.
- The theme of Dharma Sabha was to counter Brahmo samaj. It helped in spreading western education, condemned radical and liberal reforms.
Wahabi Movement- 1820
- Founded by Syed Ahmed.
- Other people associated with the movement – Vilayat Ali, Shah Muhhamad Hussain, Farhat Hussain, and Inayat Ali.
- Started from Rohilakhand and spread in Bengal, central provinces
- This was opposed British and they also fought against Sikhs.
Namdhari or Kuka Movement- 1849
- The movement across 1849-1871, founded by Balak Singh and Baba Ram Singh
- This movement among Sikhs, in NWF provinces and Punjab.
- This worked for various reforms in social, cultural, and religious reforms.
Rahnumai Mazdayasanan Sabha (Religious reform association for Parsis)- 1851
- Founded by S.S Bengali, Naoroji Furdonji, Dada Bhai Nauroji
- For improving the social conditions of Parsis.
- The journal Rast Goftar is associated with this organization.
Prarthana Samaj- 1867
- Founded by Atmaram Pandurang
- In Bombay
- The chief mentor was Govind Ranade
- They worked for the upliftment of women, the abolition of caste discrimination, and religious reforms from orthodoxy.
- widow remarriage and for raising of the age of marriage for both male and female.
Indian reform association – 1870
- Founded by Keshub Chandra Sen in Calcutta.
- Against child marriage, for the uplift of women status in society, to legalize the Brahmo Type marriage.
Satyasodhak Samaj- 1873
- founded by Jyotiba fule, in Maharashtra.
- This was against the domination of Brahman and for the upliftment of the lower caste.
- They also worked for untouchables and widows.
Arya Samaj -1875
- Founded by Dayanand Saraswati (Mulshankar) -1824-1883- in Bombay.
- He took inspiration from Vedas.
- His slogan was- “Back to Vedas”
- Satyarth Prakash was associated with his views.
- Arya Samaj fixed age of – 25 yrs. and 16 yrs. for boys and girls respectively.
- They asserted that the Veda is the book of true knowledge.
- Dayanand Anglo Vedic (DAV) schools were established.
The Theosophical Society- 1875
- Founded by Madam H.P Blavatsky (1831-91) was a Russian and Col. H.S. Olcott (1832-1907) an American.
- Annie Besant was one of its presidents.
- Founded in New York but its headquarters shifted to Adyar near Madras.
- Worked for social and religious reforms.
Seva Sadan- 1885
- Founded by Behramji M.Malabari in Bombay
- They worked for various reforms in the social and cultural field.
- This was against child marriage, forced widowhood, and helping women who were socially suppressed.
Indian National Social Conference – 1887
- Founded by M.G.Ranade and Raghunath Rao in Bombay
- Worked for social reforms.
Deva Samaj- 1887
- Founded by Shiv Narayan Agnihotri in Lahore.
- They followed The Ides of Brahmo Samaj in religious reforms.
- Social code Against bribe, gambling, alcohol consumption, and non-vegetarian food.
Ramkrishna Mission- 1897
- Founded by Vivekanand (NaredraNath Dutta)- (1863-1902) in Bengal.
- His guru was Ramkrishna Paramhansa (1834- 1886)
- worked to revive Hinduism on the basis of Ancient India’s religious Text and concept of Vedanta and Gita and other books.
- They were against cast discriminations, superstitions in Hinduism.
- They aimed to uplift women’s status and education system.
- Swami Vivekananda made a great impression at the Chicago Parliament of religion in 1893.
The servants of India Society- 1905
- Founded by Gopal Krishna Gokhale in Bombay
- for Women uplift.
- For improvement of the condition of tribals.
The Indian Women’s Association- 1917
- Founded by Annie Besant in Madras
- for the upliftment of Indian Women
- All India women conferences held for women’s betterment.
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