Before 1857 in resistance to Colonial rule, many people uprisings found from different regions of India. To understand better, we divide these uprisings into three broad forms- Civil rebellions, Tribal uprising, and peasant movement.
Many factors were responsible for people’s uprisings against the British before 1857 as such –
- Colonial land revenue Settlements
- The burden of heavy new taxes, land-related problems for peasants
- The growth of revenue collectors, tenants, and money lenders
- Revenue administration expanded over tribal land
- Implementation of heavy duties on Indian industries
- Promotion of British manufactured goods. etc.
Important Civil Uprisings
Sanyasi Revolt- 1763- 18oo
- Bihar and Bengal
- Important leaders- Manju shah, Musa shah, Bhawani Pathak, and Debi Chadhurani.
- The novel ‘Anandmath’ written by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, is based on the sanyasi revolt.
Revolt in Midnapore and Dhalbum- 1766-74
- The revolt raised in Bengal,
- Some important leaders are Damodar Singh, Jagannath Dhal etc.
Revolt of Moamarias – 1769-1799
- Asam and parts of present-day Bangladesh
- In this revolt, Krishnanarayan was an important leader.
The civil uprising in Gorakhpur, Basti, and Bahraich- 1781
- The civil uprising was in Uttarpradesh.
The Revolt in Bendur- 1797- 1800
- Dhundia Wagh
Revolt of Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja- 1797
- The leader was Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja also known as ‘Kerala Simham’ or ‘Pyche Raja’
- he fought against the British between 1793 to 1805.
- He died in November 1805 in a gunfight at Mavila Todu near the present-day Kerala-Karnataka border.
Civil Rebellion in Awadh- 1799
- The uprising was in Eastern Uttarpradesh
- Under the leadership of Wazir Ali Khan – Famous incident- The Massacre of Benaras
An uprising in Ganjam and Gumsur – 1800, 1835-37
- Eastern Orissa- Circars, Ganjam
- The revolt was against payment of revenue
- The leaders- Strikara Bhanj, Dhananjaya Bhanj, and Doora Bisayi.
Poligars’ Revolt – 1795-1805
- The centers of the uprising were Tinneveli, Ramanathapuram, Siva Ganga, Madurai, and North Arcot.
- The nawab of Acrot gave the management and control of Tinneveli and Carnatic provinces to the East India Company.
- The main leader of the uprising was Kottabomman Nayakan.
Kutch Rebellion- 1816- 1832
- Raja Bharmal
Paika Rebellion – 1817
- Important leaders – Bakshi Jagabandhu Bidyadhar, Mukunda deva and Dinbandhu Santra
Ahom Revolt- 1828
- The revolt was against the British attempt to incorporate the Ahoms and not withdrawing from Assam.
- Leaders were Gomdhar Konwar and Maharaja Purandhar Singh. Other leaders- Narendra Gadadhar Singh, and Kumar Rupchand.
- As the result of the revolt, Company handed over Upper Assam to Mahara Purandhar Singh Narendra, Part of the kingdom restored to the Assamese King.
Surat Salt Agitation – 1844
- Against increase in salt duty from 50 paise to one rupee.
- The locals of Gujarat attacked the Europeans.
Wahabi Movement – 1830- 61
- Affected places- Bihar, Northwest Frontier Province, Punjab, etc.
- It was an Islamic revivalist movement under the leadership of Syed Ahmed or Rai Bareilly.
Kuka Movement- 1840- 1872
- Founded in 1840
- Place – Punjab
- It was a religious movement, founded by Bhagat Jawahar Mal also known as Sian Saheb after him, the leader was Baba Ram Singh.
- In 1872 Baba Ram Singh was deported to Rangoon.
Important peasant movement before 1857
Narkeberia Uprising – 1831
- Bengal- 24 Parganas
- The leader was Mir Nithar Ali or Titu Mir
- Titu Mir inspired Muslim tenants in west Bengal against Hindu Landlords.
- Later the revolt merged into the Wahabi movement.
The Pagal Panthis- 1825-35
- Mymensingh district in Bengal
- It was a semi-religious uprising, against zamindars (against rent payment above certain limit)
- The leaders were- Karam Shah (founder), Tipu (son of Karam Shah)
Faraizi Revolt- 1838-57
- Faridpur in Eastern Bengal
- Founded by Haji Shariat Allah and his son Dadu Miyan
- A Muslim sect, totally religious revolt.
Moplah Uprisings- 1836- 1854
- Malabar region of Kerala
- Against hike in revenue demand and reduced field size.
Tribal Revolts before 1857
Pahariya Rebellion – 1778
- Raj Mahal Hills
Chuar Uprisings – 1766 to 1772
- Midnapore district of Bengal
- Sham Ganjan, Durjan Singh, and Mahab Singh were important leaders
Kol Mutiny- 1831
- Ranchi, Singhbhum, Hazaibagh, Palamu and Manbhum
- Buddho Bhagat was an important leader.
Ho and Munda Uprisings- 1820-1837, again 1899-1900
- Ho tribal revolt against the occupation of Singhbhum now in Jharkhand till 1827.
- In 1831 revolt again organized with Mundas off Chotanagpur, against new farming revenue policy.
- In 1899 – 1900, the Munda in south Ranchi rose under Birsa Munda. The Ulgulan Was a tribal uprising in the period 1860-1920. The rebellion began as a religious movement. Later fought against the introduction of feudal, zamindari tenures, and money lenders.
Santhal Rebellion, 1855-56
- Bhagalpur and Raj Mahal Hill (Bihar)
- Important leaders were Sidhu and Kanhu.
- The movement was against Zamindars, turned into an Anti- British movement.
- Suppressed by 1856.
Khond Uprising, 1837- 1856
- Khonds of hilly tracts extending from Odisha to the Srikakulam and Visakhapatanam district of Andhra Pradesh against Company Rule.
- Chakra Bisoi, a young raja, was the main leader of Khonds.
- The revolt was against the suppression of human sacrifice, new taxes, and entry of zamindars into their area.
Bhil revolts, 1817- 18, 1913
- Western Ghat, Southern Rajasthan
- Revolt against company rule, in 1817-19, as they faced famine, economic distress, misgovernment.
- Later a reformer Govind Guru helped Bhils, to organize themselves to fight for Bhil Raj by 1913.
Ramosi Risings, 1822-29, 1839-41
- Ramosi, the hill tribes of Western Ghats
- Chittur Singh was an important leade.
Khasi Uprising, 1829-33
- Hilly region between Garo and Jaintia Hills (N.E)
- The organization of Khasis, Garos, Khamptis, and Singpos Under Tara Singh.
- The uprising was for strangers to driving away from the plains, it was developed into a popular revolt against British rule in this area.
- In 1833, the English military forces suppressed the revolt.
Singphos Rebellion, 1830-31, 43
- Assam- Burma Border
- The rebellion broke out in early 1830, and it was suppressed just after three months.
- The rebellion rose again in 1839, and they killed the British Political agent.
- Chief Nirang Phiduled uprising of 1843, involved in the attack on British garrison and killed many British soldiers.
- In 1849, the Khasma Singphos attacked British village in Assam and was captured in 1855.
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For more, you can visit Wikipedia– https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kol_uprising