List of important Constitutional Amendments in the Indian Constitution
1st Amendment Act of 1951 (P.M Jawaharlal Nehru)
- Inserted Article 31A and 32B, schedule 9.
- It has Empowered the state for making special provisions for the advancement of socially and economically backward classes.
- It also provided for the saving of laws providing for the acquisition of estates, etc.
- Added three more grounds of restrictions on freedom of speech and expression, i.e. public order, friendly relations with foreign states, and incitement to an offense.
- Provided that the state trading and nationalization of any trade or business by the state is not to be invalid on the ground of violation of the right to trade or business.
2nd amendment Act of 1952 (P.M Jawaharlal Nehru)
- Readjusted the scale of representation in the Lok Sabha by providing that one member could represent even more than 7,50,000 persons.
3rd Amendment Act of 1954 (P.M Jawaharlal Nehru)
- Empowerment of the Parliament to control the production, supply, and distribution of foodstuffs, cattle fodder, raw cotton, cottonseed, and raw jute in the public interest.
4th Amendment Act of 1955 (P.M Jawaharlal Nehru)
- It made the scale of compensation given instead of compulsory acquisition of private property beyond the scrutiny of courts.
- Authorized the state to nationalize any trade.
- Included some more Acts in the Ninth Schedule, and extended the scope of Article 31 A (savings of laws).
7th Amendment Act of 1956 (P.M Jawaharlal Nehru)
- By the amendment, the existing classification of states into four categories was Abolished i.e., Part A, Part B, Part C, and Part D states, and reorganized into 14 states and 6 union territories.
- The jurisdiction of high courts to union territories was extended.
- The establishment of a common high court for two or more states was provided.
- Provided for the appointment of additional and acting judges of the high court.
8th Amendment Act of 1960 (P.M Jawaharlal Nehru)
- The reservation of seats for the SCs and STs and special representation for the Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and also in the state legislative assemblies extended for a period of ten years (up to 1970).
10th Amendment Act of 1961 (P.M Jawaharlal Nehru)
- Through it incorporated Dadra and Nagar Haveli into the Indian Union.
11th Amendment Act of 1961 (P.M Jawaharlal Nehru)
- With this amendment, the procedure for the election of the vice-president Changed
by providing for an electoral college instead of a joint meeting of the two Houses of Parliament.
- It was provided that the election of the president or vice-president cannot be challenged on the ground of any vacancy in the appropriate electoral college.
12th Amendment Act of 1962 (P.M Jawaharlal Nehru)
- Incorporated Goa, Daman, and Diu in the Indian Union.
13th Amendment Act of 1962 (P.M Jawaharlal Nehru)
- Status of a state to Nagaland was given and made special provisions for it
15th Amendment Act of 1963 (P.M Jawaharlal Nehru)
- It Enabled the high courts to issue writs to any person or authority even outside its territorial jurisdiction if the cause of action arises within its territorial limits.
- The retirement age of high court judges Increased from 60 to 62 years.
- The appointment of retired judges of the high courts as acting judges of the same court.
- Compensatory allowance to judges who are transferred from one high court to another.
17th Amendment Act of 1964 (P.M Jawaharlal Nehru)
- Prohibited the acquisition of land under personal cultivation unless the market value of the land is paid as compensation
- 44 more Acts were Included in the Ninth Schedule.
21st Amendment Act of 1967 (P.M Indira Gandhi)
- Sindhi was Included as the 15th language in the Eighth Schedule.
22nd Amendment Act of 1969 (P.M Indira Gandhi)
- A new autonomous State of Meghalaya within the State of Assam was created.
24th Amendment Act of 1971 (P.M Indira Gandhi)
- Affirmed the power of Parliament to amend any part of the Constitution including fundamental rights.
- The compulsion for the president to give his assent to a Constitutional Amendment Bill.
25th Amendment Act of 1971 (P.M Indira Gandhi)
- Diminished the fundamental right to property.
- Provided that any law made for giving effect to the Directive Principles contained in Article 39 (b) or (c) cannot be challenged on the ground of violation of the rights guaranteed by Articles 14, 19, and 31.
31st Amendment Act of 1972 (P.M Indira Gandhi)
- The number of Lok Sabha seats Increased from 525 to 545.
35th Amendment Act of 1974 (P.M Indira Gandhi)
- Terminated the protectorate status of Sikkim and conferred the status of an associate state of the Indian Union. The Tenth Schedule was added with the terms and conditions of the association of Sikkim with the Indian Union.
42nd Amendment Act of 1976 (P.M Indira Gandhi)
The most comprehensive amendment; also known as the ‘Mini- Constitution’; on the recommendations of the Swaran Singh Committee. Some important facts are discussed below:
- Added three new words i.e., socialist, secular, and integrity in the Preamble.
- Fundamental Duties by the citizens (new Part IV A) were added.
- Made the president is bound by the advice of the cabinet
- Froze the seats in the Lok Sabha and state legislative assemblies based on the 1971 census till 2001.
- The constitutional amendments will not come under judicial scrutiny.
- Diminished the power of judicial review and writ jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and high courts.
- The tenure of Lok Sabha and state legislative assemblies was raised from 5 to 6 years.
- It was provided that the laws made for the execution of Directive Principles cannot be declared invalid by the courts on the ground of violation of some Fundamental Rights.
- Added three new Directive Principles viz., equal justice and free legal aid, the participation of workers in the management of industries, and protection of the environment, forests, and wildlife.
- Empowered the Parliament to make laws to deal with anti-national activities and such laws are to take precedence over Fundamental Rights.
- Extended the one-time duration of the President’s rule in a state from 6 months to one year.
- five subjects Shifted from the state list to the concurrent list, viz, education, forests, protection of wild animals and birds, weights and measures and administration of justice, constitution, and organization of all courts except the Supreme Court and the high courts.
Forty-Third (43rd) Amendment Act of 1977 (Morarji Desai)
- Enacted by the Janata Government to set aside some of the distortions introduced by the 42nd Amendment Act of 1976.
- By this, the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and the high courts was restored in respect of judicial review and the issue of writs.
- Destitute the Parliament of its special powers to make laws for dealing with anti-national activities.
44th Amendment Act of 1978 (Morarji Desai)
This was also enacted by the Janata Government mainly to nullify some of the other distortions introduced by the 42nd Amendment Act of 1976. Some important facts are discussed below:
- By this, the original term of the Lok Sabha and the state legislative assemblies was Restored i.e., 5 years.”
- Restored the provisions about the quorum in the Parliament and state legislatures.
- The president was empowered to send back once the advice of the cabinet for reconsideration. But, the reconsidered advice is to be binding on the president.
- The President can declare a national emergency only on the written recommendation of the cabinet.
- Certain procedural safeguards concerning a national emergency and the President’s rule.
- Deleted the right to property from the list of Fundamental Rights and made it only a legal right.
- The fundamental rights guaranteed by Articles 20 and 21 cannot be suspended even during a national emergency.
52nd Amendment Act of 1985 (P.M Rajeev Gandhi)
- Popularly known as Anti-Defection Law.
- Disqualification of members of Parliament and state legislatures on the ground of defection and the new tenth Schedule added containing the details in regarding the matter.
55th Amendment Act of 1986 (P.M Rajeev Gandhi)
- Special provisions in respect to Arunachal Pradesh fixed the strength of its Assembly at a minimum of 30 members.
61st Amendment Act of 1989 (P.M Rajeev Gandhi)
- Reduced the age of voting from 21 years to 18 years for the Lok Sabha and state legislative assembly elections.
70th Amendment Act of 1992 (P.M P.V Narsimha Rao)
- Inclusion of the members of the Legislative Assemblies of National Capital Territory of Delhi and the Union Territory of Puducherry in the electoral college for the election of the president.
73rd Amendment Act of 1992 (P.M P.V Narsimha Rao)
- constitutional status and protection are given to the Panchayati raj institutions. For this purpose, the Amendment has added a new Part-IX entitled ‘the panchayats’ and a new Eleventh Schedule added containing 29 functional items of the panchayats.
- The institution of Panchayati raj is under constitutional status by the 73rd Amendment Act, 1992.
- Article 243 to 243O in part IX of the constitution deals with the organization, powers, and duties of Panchayats.
74th Amendment Act of 1992 (P.M P.V Narsimha Rao)
- Constitutional status and protection are given to the urban local bodies. For this purpose, the article 280 Amendment added a new Part IX-A entitled ‘the municipalities’ and a new Twelfth Schedule added containing 18 functional items of the municipalities.
- Article 243P to 243ZG in Part IX-A of the Indian constitution deals with the organization, powers, and duties of the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs)
86th Amendment Act of 2002 (P.M Atal Bihari Vajpayee)
- Elementary education made a fundamental right. Added new Article 21-A declares that “the State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the State may determine.
- The subject matter of Article 45 in Directive Principles was changed. It now reads —“The State shall endeavor to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of six years”.
- A new fundamental duty added under Article 51-A reads—“It shall be the duty of every citizen of India who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or ward between the age of six and fourteen years”.
91st Amendment Act of 2003 (P.M Atal Bihari Vajpayee)
Provisions were made to limit the size of the Council of Ministers, debar defectors from holding public offices, and strengthen the anti-defection law.
- The total number of ministers, including the Prime Minister, in the Central Council of Ministers, shall not exceed 15% of the total strength of the Lok Sabha (Article 75(1A)).
- The total number of ministers, including the Chief Minister, in the Council of Ministers in a state shall not exceed 15% of the total strength of the Legislative Assembly of that state. But, the number of ministers, including the Chief Minister, in a state shall not be less than 12 (Article 164(1A)).
- A member of either House of a state legislature belonging to any political party who is disqualified on the ground of defection shall also be disqualified to be appointed as a minister (Article 164(1B)).
- The provision of the Tenth Schedule (anti-defection law) pertaining to an exemption from disqualification in case of the split by one-third of members of the legislature party has been deleted. It means that the defectors have no more protection on grounds of splits.
100th Amendment Act (P.M Narendra Modi)
- 1st August 2015
- The first schedule amended the Land boundary agreement between India and Bangladesh
101st Amendment Act of 2017 (P.M Narendra Modi)
- 1st July 2017
- Introduced the Goods and service tax. Articles 246A, 269A, and 279A were added, and 268A was deleted.
102nd Amendment Act of 2018 (P.M Narendra Modi)
- 11th of August 2018
- The constitutional status is given to National Commission for backward classes
103rd Amendment Act of 2019 (P.M Narendra Modi)
- 12th of January 2019
- 10% reservation for economically weaker section. (EWSs). Article 15 amended clause 6 added and Article 16 amended and clause 6 added.
104th. Amendment Act of 2020 (P.M Narendra Modi)
- 25th of January 2020
- Reservation seats for SCs and STs extended Reserve seats for Anglo- Indian Community removed in Lok Sabha and State Assemblies. Amendment in Article 334.
105th. Amendment (P.M Narendra Modi)
- 10 August 2021
- 338B and 342A Amended
- To restore states’ power to make their own OBC lists. Annulling SC judgment of 11 May 2021.
You can also read:
- The preamble of the Indian constitution
- fundamental rights
- List of important Articles of the Indian constitution
Indian Constitution, Laxmikant Polity Book and
Thank You 🙂