Governors general of India and Significant events in their rule
The post of Governor-general of India was the representative of British rule. The authority was created on 20 Oct. 1773 with the title of Governor-general with the presidency of Fort William.
- They had only power over the presidency of Fort William. However, the Regulating Act granted the governor-general additional powers relating to foreign affairs and defense.
- Warren Hastings was the first Governor-general of Bengal. The charter Act 1833, made the Governor-general of Bengal as Governor-general of British India.
- The Charter Act 1833 granted “superintendence, direction, and control of the whole civil and military Government” of all British India.
- The Charter Act 1833 also granted legislative powers to the governor-general and council.
The governor-general was always advised by a Council on the exercise of his legislative and executive powers. The governor-general, while exercising many functions, was referred to as the “Governor-General in Council.”
List of Governor generals
1. Warren Hastings (1772-1785)
- Regulating Act of 1773
- Power of jurisdiction divided between Governor-general and the supreme court of Calcutta under Act of 1781.
- The first Indian newspaper “Bengal Gazette” was published in 1980.
- The Supreme court of Judicature at Fort William in 1774 was established.
- Pitts India Act of 1784
- Foundation of Asiatic Society of Bengal in 1784.
Wars during his ruling time
- In 1774 the Rohilla war.
- First Maratha war in 1775-82 and Treaty of Salbai in 1782
- 2nd Mysore War (Haidar Ali against British) in 1780-84
2. Lord Cornwallis (1786-1793)
- Third Mysore war 1790-92 (death of Tipu Sultan in 1792) and the treaty of Seringapatam in 1792.
- Cornwallis Code – 1793, incorporated many judicial reforms, separation of civil jurisdiction, and revenue administration.
- In 1793, the permanent settlement of Bengal.
- Introduction of civil services.
3. Sir John shore (1793- 1798)
- The charter Act of 1793
- In 1795, the Battle of Kharda between Maratha and Nizam.
4. Lord Wellesley (1798-1805)
- Subsidiary alliance system introduced in 1798, the first Alliance was with the Nizam of Hyderabad. (In subsidiary Alliance the Indian states forced or compelled to have a British official as a resident at court and also to accept permanent British force and pay a subsidy for its maintenance.)
- The fourth Mysore war, 1799.
- 2nd Maratha war 1803- 05.
- The administration of Tanjore-1799, Surat-1800, and Carnatic- 1801 was taken over.
- Treaty of Bassein- 1802.
5. Sir George Barlow (1805-1807)
- Mutiny of Vellore-1806.
6. Lord Minto I – (1807- 1813)
- In 1809 the treaty of Amritsar with Ranjit Singh.
7. Lord Hastings (1813-1823)
- The Anglo-Nepal war (1814-1816) – Nepal defeated, and the Treaty of Sagauli in 1816.
- Third Maratha war (1817-19)- Maratha was defeated, Bombay’s presidency was created in 1818.
- Treaty of Sindhia in 1817.
- Thomas Munro the Governor of Madras established the Ryotwari system in 1820.
8. Lord Amherst (1823-1828)
- First Burmese War – (1824-1826).
- Bharatpur was captured in 1820.
9. Lord William Bentick (1828-1835)
- Abolition of Sati and other cruel rights in 1829.
- Subduing Thugs in 1830.
- Charter Act of 1833.
- Educational reforms and English were introduced as an official language.
- Occupation of Mysore (1831), Coorg (1834), central Cachar in 1834.
- Treaty of friendship with Ranjeet Singh.
- Abolition of the provincial court of appeal and other circuits settled by Cornwallis, the appointment of commissioners of revenue and circuit.
10. Lord Metcalfe (1835-36)
- He removed restrictions on the press by New press law.
11. Lord Auckland (1836-42)
- During his time- First Afghan war (1838-42)
- Death of Ranjeet Singh (1839).
12. Lord Ellenborough (1842-1844)
- Invasion of Sindh – 1843.
- War with Gwalior- 1843.
13. Lord Harding- I (1844-1848)
- First Anglo-Sikh war in 1845-46, Punjab army defeated, Treaty of Lahore in 1846.
- Abolition of female infanticides and other social reforms like Human sacrifice.
14. Lord Dalhousie (1848- 1856)
- 2nd Anglo Sikh war 1848-49, invasion of Punjab.
- Invasion of Pegu or Lower Burma in 1852.
- The doctrine of Lapse introduced and occupation of Satara- 1848, Jaitpur and Sambalpur- 1849, Udaipur- 1852, Jhansi- 1853, Nagpur- 1854, and Awadh- 1856.
- ‘Wood’s Educational dispatch- 1854, Anglo vernacular schools and Government colleges opened.
- The first railway line lay down in 1853, connecting Bombay and Thane.
- Telegraph (1851) connecting- Calcutta with Bombay, Madras, and Peshawar.
- Postal reforms – Post office Act- 1854
- 1855- Santhal Rebellion.
- Widow Remarriage Act-1856.
15. Lord Canning (1856- 1857)
- University of Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay established in 1857.
- revolt of 1857.
You can also read:
- Viceroys of India
- Indian Independent Act of 1947
- List of some important Constitutional Amendments
- Important Articles of the Indian Constitution
Thank you 🙂