Classification of Animal Tissues

Animal Tissues

In multicellular animals, a group of similar cells along with intercellular substances perform a specific function. Such an organization is called tissue. The tissues arise from the undifferentiated cells of Primary Germ Layers i.e. Ectoderm, Mesoderm, and Endoderm.

Features of tissues:

  • These tissues form an organ like – the stomach, heart, and kidneys by organizing themselves in specific forms. These organs together form organ systems like the digestive system, respiratory system, etc.
  • The study of tissues is called Histology.
  • The English word ’tissue’ is derived from the French word ’tissue’ meaning something that is woven.
  • Father of Histology – Bichat
  • French anatomist Xavier Bichat introduced the concept of tissue in anatomy in 1801
  • The term “Histology” was coined by Mayer in 1819 in his book.
  • We can define a tissue as an ensemble of similar cells and their extracellular matrix from the same origin that together carry out a specific function. Organs are then formed by the functional grouping together of multiple tissues
  • The tissues cover all organismal surfaces that come in contact with the external environment such as skin, the airways, and the digestive tract.
  • The tissue functions of protection, secretion, and absorption.
  • The tissues are separated from other tissues by a basal lamina.

Classification of Animal Tissue

On the basis of structure and function, animal tissues can be broadly classified into four basic types:

Classification of Animal Tissues

Classification of Animal Tissues

1. Epithelial tissue

    1. Simple epithelium
      1. Simple squamous
      2. simple columnar
      3. simple cuboidal
    2. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
    3. Stratified or compound epithelium
      1. Stratified squamous
      2. Stratified Columnar
      3. Stratified Cuboid
      4. transitional epithelium
    4. Multicellular glands.

2. Connective tissue

    1. Proper connective tissue
      1. Loose connective tissue
      2. Dense connective tissue
    2. supportive connective tissue
      1. Cartilage
      2. Bone
    3. Vascular connective tissue
      1. Blood
      2. Lymph

3. Muscular tissue

    1. Smooth muscle
    2. Skeletal Muscle
    3. Cardiac muscle

4. Neural tissue/ Nervous tissue

    1. Neurons
    2. neuroglial cells
    3. neurosecretory cells
    4. unipolar neurons
    5. bipolar neurons
    6. multipolar neurons
    7. Myelinated sheath
    8. non-myelinated sheath


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