Mind Map: As we are going through the notes of Modern history, I found the need for a mind map for the entire process whatever happened in short. It included the significant event that happened in British India, the most important personalities associated and contributed and the main issues they faced at that time. Other previous important events linked with modern Indian Histories like the Delhi Sultanate and Mughals.
Medieval period: approx 647 to 1761 AD
- early medieval – 647-1206 AD
- Sultanate Period: 1206 – 1526 AD
- Mughal Period: 1526 – 1707
- After 1707 the declination of Mughals.
Northern India: Age of three Empires- Palas, Pratiharas, and Rashtrakutas.
The Palas: (760-1142)-
- Founded by Gopal (750 AD)
- Dharmapala was the second ruler of the Pala Empire of Bengal and Bihar regions in the Indian subcontinent. He was the son and successor of Gopala, the founder of the Pala Dynasty. He greatly expanded the boundaries of the empire and made the Palas a dominant power in northern and eastern India.
- Involved in the tripartite struggle with Pratihars and Rastrakutas.
- Devpala son of Dharmapala, annexed Assam and Kalinga
- Buddhist Ardents, Revival of Nalanda, Founding of Vikramshila (Vijaynagara school)
Pratihars: (Mid 8th century CE to 1036CE)
- Founded by Nagabhatta I.
- Greatest kings: MihirBhoja, and Mahendra Bhoja
- They ruled first at Ujjain and later at Kannauj
Rastrakutas: (between the sixth and 10th centuries)
- Founder- Dantivarman or Dantidurga
The earliest known Rashtrakuta inscription is a 7th-century copper plate grant detailing their rule from Manapura, a city in Central or West India.
Chronology of Delhi Sultanate
The Turkish invasion in India by Muhammad Ghori in 1173 to 1202. The brave Rajput chiefs of northern India headed by Prithvi Raj Chauhan defeated him in the First Battle of Terrain in 1191 A.D.
After about a year, Muhammad Ghori came again to avenge his defeat. A furious battle was fought again in Terrain in 1192 A.D. in which the Rajputs were defeated and Prithvi Raj Chauhan was captured and put to death and laid the foundations of Muslim rule in northern India. He nominated his Slave Qutub ud-din Aibak as governor of India, thus Turkish came in power in Delhi.
Mamluk or Slave Dynasty-(1206-1290)- Founded by Qutub-ud-din Aibak
- Qutub-ud-din Aibak- 1206-1210
- Aram Shah- 1210- 1211
- Iltutmish (1211- 36)
- Rajiya Sultana (1236-40)
- Muiz ud din Bahram- 1240-42
- Alaudin Masud- 1242-46
- Nasiruddin Mahmud- 1246-66
- Ghiasudin Balban- 1266- 1286
- Muizdin Qaiqabad- 1286- 1290
Important: Construction of Qutub Minar by Qutubindin Aibak, which was finished by his successor. Construction of Qwat ul- Islam, at Delhi. Adhai din ka jhopra constructed in Ajmer.
- Jalaluddin Khilji (1290-96)
- Allauddin Khilji (1296-1316)
- Umar Khan Khilji (1316)
- Qutub ud din Mubarak Shah (1316-1320)
- Khusro Khan- (1320)
- Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq (1320-24)
- Muhammad bin-Tughluq (1325-51)
- Firoz Shah Tughluq (1351-88)
- Abu Bakar Shah- (1389-90)
- Sultan Nasir-ud-din Tughluq (1394-1413)
Sayyid Dynasty was founded by Khizr Khan, a former governor of Multan, they succeeded the Tughlaq dynasty and ruled the sultanate until they were displaced by the Lodi dynasty.
- Khizr Khan- (1414-1421)
- Mubarak Shah- (1421-1434)
- Muhammad Shah-(1434- 1445)
- Alam Shah- (1445-1451)
Lodi Dynasty was founded by Bahlul Khan Lodi. The Lodi dynasty was an Afghan dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1451 to 1526.
- BahlolLodi- (1451-1489)
- Sikandar Lodi-(1489-1517)
- Ibrahim Lodi- (1517-26)
Important: The First Battle of Panipat was fought between the invading forces of Babur and the Lodi Empire, which took place on 21 April 1526 in North India. It marked the beginning of the Mughal Empire. This was one of the earliest battles involving gunpowder firearms and field artillery.
Chronology of Mughals
- Humayun(1530-40, 1554-56)
- Akbar- (1556-1605)
- Shah Jahan (1628-57)
- Aurangzeb- (1658-1707)
after Aurangzeb the decline of Mughals initiated. After Aurangzeb, there are external as well as internal challenges in front of Mughals. The external challenge as invasions of foreigners Internal challenge as weak rulers in the empire. after 1707 the Mughals rule is called Later Mughal Period (1707 to 1857)
- Bahadur Shah – (1707-12)
- Jahandar Shah-(1712-13)
- Muhammad Shah- (1719-48)
- Nadir Shah Persian emperor attacked in his reign in(1738-39). He looted the peacock throne and Kohinoor diamond with seventy crore rupees.
- Ahmad Shah-(1748-54)–
- He was an incompetent ruler, he left the empire in hands of Udham bai. Ahmed Shah Abdali or Ahmed Shah Durrani was the successor of Nadir Shah- Invaded India several times between 1748 and 1767.
- Alamgir II- (1754-1759)
- Shah Alam-(1759-1806)
- He issued Ferman to granting the right to the British to collect the revenue of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa. After him, the Mughals became pensioners of English.
- Akbar II- (1806-37)– Given title “Raja” to Rammohan Rai.
- Bahadur Shah II- (1837-57)– Captured by British in 1857 revolt and sent to Rangoon. Died in 1862.
In South Bahmani and the Vijaynagar Kingdom during Medival India
- Harihar Raya I (1336 -1356)
- Bukka Raya I (1356- 1377)
- Harihar Raya II (1377- 1404)
- Virupakha Raya (1404-1405)
- Bukka Raya II (1405-1406)
- Deva Raya I (1406- 1422)
- Ramachadra Raya (1422)
- Deva Raya II (1424-1446)
- Mallikarjun Raya (1446- 1465)
- Virupaksha Raya II (1465- 1485)
- Praudha Raya (1485)
Modern history period: 1757 to 1947, after 1947- Independent India.
Stage of British in India:
- The mercantile phase: 1757-1813, is known for the monopoly of trade and revenue collection.
- The Industrial phase: 1813-1858, The period for free trade, and wars for political superiority.
- The Financial phase: 1860 – 1947, Imperialism, they became a superpower in India, and mostly focus on the drainage of finance (money, as revenue and other raw materials) from India.
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