Second Carnatic War (1749-54)
The second Carnatic war was fought between Nasir Jung, the Nizam and his follower Muhammad Ali with the support of English, and Chanda Sahib and Muzaffar Jung with support of the French. The war lasted from 1749 to 1754.
Background of the war: It was continued after the first Carnatic War, and the background provided by Anglo-French rivalry in India. French under the leadership of Dupleix succeeded in the first Carnatic war, and their power and position in politics increased southern India.
Dupleix Succeeded in the first war in 1748 and he sought to increase his power in French political influence in southern India by interfering in local dynastic defeat to English.
Immediate Causes of Second Carnatic war:
The second carnatic war was triggered by a succession struggle in Hyderabad, After the death of Nizam-ul-Mulk in 1748 who was the founder of an independent kingdom of Hyderabad.
- Nizam –ul-Mulk nominated his Grandson Muzaffar jang as his successor, Nasir jang, his second son also wanted the kingdom.
- The British supported Nasir Jang and Anwar-ud –din while the French supported Muzaffar Jang and Chanda Sahib’s claim.
- Anwar-ud-din appointed Nawab of Carnatic in 1743, one of the Nizam’s officers.
- Chanda Sahib, the son-in-law of the previous Nawab of Carnatic, Dost Ali since 1732-39 was released by Marathas. In the Carnatic, the appointment of Anwar-ud-din Khan was resented by Chanda Sahib.
The course of War
Muzaffar Jang and Chanda Sahib combined their armies together with French armies and killed Anwar-ud-din at Ambur, southwest of Arcot, in 1749.
- Muzaffar jang Became subahdar of Deccan.
- Dupleix appointed as governor of all the Mughal territories to the south of river Krishna.
- Some areas of Pondicherry including Musalipatnam were ceded to the French.
- After the failed assistance Robert Clive suggested a sudden raid on Arcot, the capital of Carnatic to relieve the pressure on Trichinopoly, and in August 1751 Clive attacked and captured Arcot with only 210 men. Chanda Sahib failed to get back to the fort even after a siege of 53 days.
- Trichinopoly was first relieved of siege, while general law of France with Chanda Sahib remained cooped up in the island of Srirangam.
- They were forced to surrender in June 1752 when Muhammad Ali executed Chanda Sahib.
Result of the war
- After the defeat in the war, Dupleix was recalled to France in 1754.
- Goodhue succeeded Dupleix as French governor-general in India. He adopted the policy of negotiation and concluded a treaty with the English.
- The English and French agreed not to interfere in the native princes’ quarrels.
- French prompted to suspend hostilities in India.
- Both parties were left in possession of the territories occupied by them at the time of the treaty.
It became clear that the support of Indian authority was no longer necessary for Europeans; Rather Indian Authority itself was becoming dependent on European support. Muhammad Ali in Carnatic and Slabat Jang in Hyderabad became clients rather than patrons
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