First Carnatic War – 1740-48
Some important Facts of the first Carnatic war:
- The war fought between English and French
- The leaders involved- Anwar-du-din Khan (Nawab of Carnatic), Major Stringer Lawrence (British), and Joseph Francois Dupleix (French Governor-General)
- Place Carnatic region, Southern India.
Background of first Carnatic war:
The name Carnatic was given by to Coromandel coast and its hinterland by Europeans. The first Carnatic war was an extension of the Anglo-French War in Europe which was caused by the Australian War of Succession.
- In 1720 France effectively nationalized the French East India Company, and began to expand its imperial interests. This became a source of conflict with the British in India with the entry of Britain into the War of the Austrian Succession in 1744
|The war of Austrian Succession
Immediate Cause of First Carnatic War:
France was conscious of its weaker position in India, so did not favor the extension of hostilities to India, but the English Navy under Curtis Bennett seized some French ships to provoke France.
- French Governor-General, the Marquis Joseph-Francois Dupleix, appealed for protection from Anwar-ud-din, the Nawab of Carnatic, and warned the British that his province was neutral territory and that no attack on French possession would be tolerated.
France retaliated by seizing Madras in 1746 with the help of Mauritius, The Isle of France, under Admiral La Bourdonnais, the French governor of Mauritius.
The Situation triggered English, and the first Carnatic war began.
Result of First Carnatic War:
- The small French army under Captain paradise defeated the strong Indian army of Mahfuz khan at St. Thome on the bank of river Adyar.
- The war ended in 1748 with the Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle
- Under the treaty – Madras was handed back to The English, and the French got their territories in North America.
Significances of the war:
- The war is remembered for the battle of St. Thome (in Madras) fought between french forces and the forces of Anwar-ud din, the nawab of Carnatic.
- This war was an eye-opener for Europeans in India, it revealed that even a small disciplined army could easily defeat a larger Indian army.
- The established early British dominancy on the east coast of the Indian subcontinent.
- Further, the war adequately brought out the importance of naval force in the Anglo-French conflict in the Deccan.
- There were no territorial gains for either the British or the French and the former territories were restored to these two parties.
- The war had also enhanced the prestige of the French in the Carnatic Region
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