Phylum-Arthropoda – (The name is derived from- Atheros-joint, pods-appendages). These are invertebrates include insects, arachnids, myriapods, and crustaceans. Phylum Arthropoda is the largest phylum of the kingdom Animalia. Around two-thirds of all species on earth belongs to the phylum Arthropoda.

Characteristics features of phylum Arthropoda
  • Level of organization: The members having the organ-system level of organization.
  • Symmetry: Bilateral symmetry in organisms
  • Germinal layer: Triploblastic
  • Segmented body
  • Body cavity or coelom: These are coelomate animals.
  • Exoskeleton: In arthropods, the body is covered with a chitinous exoskeleton.
  • Body: The body of the members divided into head, thorax, and abdomen. They consisting of Joint appendages (jointed legs).
  • Respiration: Through gills, book gills, book lungs, or tracheal system.
  • Circulation: Open type of circulatory system consisting of hemolymph.
  • Sensory organs are found like antennae, eyes- may be compound and simple. Balancing organs or statocytes is present.
  • Excretion: Malpighian tubules as an excretory organ.
  • Reproduction: The members of this phylum are mostly dioecious.
    • Generally Internal Fertilization
    • Mostly oviparous- (these lay eggs.)
  • Development-It may be Direct or Indirect development is seen in members.
Example of arthropoda
Scientific Classification of Arthropoda
Kingdom: Animalia
Subkingdom Eumetazoa
Clade Parahexazoa
Clade Bileteria
Clade Nephrozoa
Superphylum Ecdysozoa
Phylum Arthropoda
The Arthropods divided into four major classes:
Crustacea
  •  Members including animals like crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimps, prawns, etc.
  • mostly these are free-living aquatic animals, some terrestrial and some parasitic, few are sessile also.
  • Crustaceans possess an exoskeleton,  by which they moult to grow.
  • Distinguished from other groups of arthropods by possessing biramous i.e. limbs in two parts.
  • Larval forms as nauplius stage of branchiopods and copepods.
Myriapoda
  •  Members of this group including millipedes, centipedes, and others.
  • These consisting mostly of simple eyes, and Single pair of antennae.
  • They breathe through the spiracles which is connected to the tracheal system.
  • Excrete nitrogenous waste by malpighian tubules.
Insecta
  • Direved from Latin word- insectum, 
  • These are the largest group of phylum Arthropoda, subphylum-Hexapoda.
  • possess a chitinous exoskeleton
  • Body divided into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen
  • The members consisting three pairs of jointed legs, compound eye, and one pair of antennae.
  • The pupal stage is found in these groups which undergo four-stage metamorphosis.
  • Some insects lack pupal stage, undergo three-stage metamorphosis, and develop through the nymphal stage.
Arachnida
  • These arthropods belong to the subphylum Chelicerata.
  • These are mainly terrestrial
  • Most of these consist of eight legs, the front pair of legs in some species working as a sensory organ.
  • They have two types of eyes: Lateral and median ocelli.
  • The lateral ocelli are evolved from compound eyes.
  • The median ocelli- developed from the transverse fold of the ectoderm.
  • They don’t possess antennae or wings.

 Some Economically important Arthropoda:

    • Bombyx-Silkworm
    • Apis-Honey bee
    • Laccifer- Lac insect
  • Some are vectors of disease: Mosquitoes like Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes.
  • Gregarious pest (a harmful pest that attacks crops): Locusta- Locust,
  • Living fossil– Limulus-King crab

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