The Peninsular Drainage System
The Peninsular drainage system is older than the Himalayan system. The system includes the Narmada, the Tapi, the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna, the Kaveri, and many other small rivers.
The evolution of the Peninsular drainage system:
In the past three major geological events occurred that shaped the present drainage system of Peninsular India:
- Subsidence of the Western flank of the Peninsula led to its submergence below the sea during the early tertiary period; 500 million years ago. This disturbed the symmetrical plan of the river on either side of the original watershed.
- The upheaval of the Himalayas when the Northern flank of the Peninsular block was subjected to subsidence and the consequent through faulting. Example: Narmada and Tapi flow in trough/fault and fill original cracks with their detritus materials. Thus there is a lack of alluvial and deltaic deposits in these rivers.
- Slight tilting of the Peninsular block from the North-West to the Southeastern direction gave orientation to the entire drainage system towards the Bay of Bengal.
Characteristics of Peninsular Drainage System:
The Peninsular rivers are fed by monsoon rain and are non-perennial or seasonal in nature. These rivers are older than the Himalayan rivers.
- These rivers possess fixed courses and fewer or no meanders.
- The Western Ghats act as the water divide between the major Peninsular rivers, discharging their water in the Bay of Bengal and as small rivulets joining the Arabian Sea.
- The Narmada and Tapi rivers flow from east to west through the rift valleys.
- Peninsular rivers named Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri flow from West to East.
- The Chambal, Betwa, Sind, Sone, etc originating in the Northern part of the Peninsular, flow from South-West to North-East to join Ganga.
The River System of Peninsular Drainage
Major rivers of the Peninsular drainage system:
|The Narmada river||
Small Rivers of the system:
List of some Small rivers with states flowing towards the West
Small Rivers Flowing Towards the East
|Subarnarekha||Odisha and Jharkhand|
|Brahmani, Vamsadhara, and Pennar||Andhra Pradesh|
|Polar, Vaigai||Tamil Nadu|
You can also read:
- Namami Gange Programme
- Rivers of India and their main Tributaries
- The Indus (Sindhu) River System
- The Ganga River system
- The Brahmaputra river system
- Soils of India
Thank you 🙂