The Indus (Sindhu) River System

River Indus originates from a glacier at the height of 4,164 m near Bokhar Chu (31 ° 15′ N latitude and 81°40 ′E longitude) in Kailash mountain range in the Tibetan region known as Singi Khamban or Lion’s mouth.

Indus river passes through Ladakh and Baltistan after flowing in the Northwest direction between Ladakh and Zaskar range.

It forms a spectacular gorge near Gilgit in Jammu and Kashmir and enters Pakistan near Chilas in the Dardistan region.

In India, the length of the Indus is 1,114km, and its total length is 2,880km. It is one of the largest river basins of the world, which covers an area of 11,65,000sq km, out of which 321,289 sq km is in India.

Indus river system

Indus river system

Tributaries of the Indus river system
  • Himalayan tributaries- The Indus river system consists of a number of Himalayan tributaries such as river shyok, the Gilgit, the Zaskar, the Hunza, the Nubra, the Shigar, the Gasting, and the Dras.
  • Right bank tributaries: It finally emerges out of the hills near Attock where it meets the Kabul river on its right bank. The other right bank tributaries are including the Khurram, the Tochi, the Gomal, the Viboa, and the Sangar. All these rivers originate from the Suleiman ranges.
  • Left bank tributaries: Panjnad– As the Indus river flows Southward its left bank tributaries are known as Panjnad, these are the five rivers of Punjab; The Satluj, the Beas, the Ravi, the Chenab, and the Jhelum. All these rivers meet in Mithankot in Pakistan and finally, it discharges into the Arabian Sea, East of Karachi.
  • In India, the Indus flow only through Jammu and Kashmir.


Panjnad river is formed by the successive mergers of the five rivers of Punjab. The five rivers of Punjab – the Satluj, the Beas, the Ravi, the Chenab, and the Jhelum. To form Panjnad, river Jhelum and Ravi joins Chenab, river Beas joins Sutlej and then Sutlej and Chenab join to form Panjnad.


Panjnad river system

Panjnad river system


Description: About the rivers of Panjnad; the Left bank tributaries of Jhelum
The Chenab
  • The Chenab is the largest tributary of the river Indus
  • Chenab is formed by two streams, the Chandra and the Bhaga. These streams join at Tandi near Keylong in Himachal Pradesh.
  • It flows for is a distance of 1,180km in India before entering Pakistan.
The Jhelum
  • River Jhelum rises from a spring at Verinag situated at the foot of Pir Panjal, in the Southeastern part of Kashmir Valley.
  • The river Jhelum flows through Srinagar and Wular lake before entering Pakistan through a deep narrow gorge.
  • Jhelum river joins Chenab near Jhang in Pakistan.
 The Ravi
  • The Ravi rises from the Kullu hills of Himachal Pradesh in the West of Rohtang pass and flows through Chamba Valley of the state.
  • It drains between the Southeastern part of the Pir Panjal and the Dhauladhar ranges.
  • The Ravi joins Chenab near Sarai Sidhu before entering Pakistan.
 The Beas
  •  River Beas rises from Beas Kund near the Rohtang Pass in Himachal Pradesh at the height of 4000 m above the mean sea level.
  • River Beas flows through Kullu Valley and forms gorges at Kati and Lagri in the Dhauladhar range.
  • Near Harike in Punjab plains, the river Beas joins river Sutlej.
The Sutlej
  • The river Sutlej originates from the Rakas lake near Mansarovar at the height of 4555 m in Tibet, there it is known as Langchen Khambab.
  • River Sutlej runs parallel to the Indus for about 400km before entering India and comes out of the gorge at Rupar.
  • The river is an antecedent river that flowed on its original course before the Himalayas were formed.
  • River Sutlej passes through Shipki La, then it enters Punjab plains and feeds the canal system of the Bhakra Nangal Project.


You can also read:

Thank you 🙂

Spread Your Love


  • The Ganga River System - PCSSTUDIES - Geography · March 2, 2022 at 10:53 am

    […] The Indus (Sindhu) River System […]

  • Rivers of India and their main Tributaries - PCSSTUDIES - Geography · March 2, 2022 at 10:56 am

    […] Indus river system […]

  • The Brahmaputra river system - PCSSTUDIES Geography · March 4, 2022 at 8:20 am

    […] The Indus (Sindhu) River System […]

  • Climatic regions of India - PCSSTUDIES - Geography · March 9, 2022 at 4:21 pm

    […] The Indus (Sindhu) River System […]

  • The Peninsular drainage system - PCSSTUDIES - Geography · March 13, 2022 at 2:10 pm

    […] The Indus (Sindhu) River System […]

  • Leave a Reply

    %d bloggers like this: