Viceroys of India and significant Events in their rule
After the 1857 revolt, the company rule was abolished in India and the power came under the direct control of the British Crown. After the revolt Government of India Act 1858 passed.
The Act of 1858 changed the name of the post-Governor General of India as Viceroy of India. The Viceroy was appointed directly by the British Government. The First viceroy was Lord Canning.
List of Viceroys of India
1. Lord Canning (1858-1862)
- He served as the last governor-general during 1856- 57.
- The first viceroy of India
- The Government of India Act, 1858– Transfer of power to the Crown from East India Company.
- White mutiny by European troops -1859.
- The Police Act of 1861, and
- Indian Council Act of 1861
2. Lord Elgin I (1862-63)
- Wahabi Movement
3. Lord John Lawrence (1864-1869)
- Bhutan war – 1865.
- Establishment of High court at Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras in 1865.
4. Lord Mayo (1869-1872)
- Rajkot College in Kathiawar and Mayo college at Ajmer.
- Statistical survey of India Established.
- Department of Agriculture and commerce established.
- State railway introduced.
5. Lord Northbrook (1872-76)
- Prince of Wales visit in 1875.
- Trail of Gaekwar of Baroda.
- The Kuka movement in Punjab.
6. Lord Lytton (1876- 1880)
- Famine (scarcity of food) of 1876-78, Under the presidency of Richard Strachey- appointment of Famine Commission in 1878.
- Royal title Act of 1876- Queen Victoria assumed the title – ‘Kaiser-i-Hind ‘or ‘Queen Empress of India”. By this, the theory came that Britain would protect Indian states from internal as well as external problems.
- The Vernacular Press Act of 1878.
- The Arms Act- 1878.
- The second afghan War 1878-1880.
7.Lord Ripon (1880-1884)
- Vernacular Press Act Repealed in 1882.
- For improving Labour conditions – The First Factory Act 1881.
- Resolution of government on Local self-government -1882
- Under chairman Sir William Hunter- Education Commission Appointed.
- The controversy of Ilbert bill 1883-84.
8.Lord Dufferin (1884- 1888)
- Third Burmese War (1885-86)
- Indian National Congress established.
9. Lord Lansdowne (1888- 1894).
- Factory Act of 1891.
- Civil services categorized into imperial, provisional, and subordinate.
- Indian Council Act-1892.
- Durand commission – 1893- for defining Duran line between India and Afghanistan, (now in between Pakistan and Afghanistan, it also touches a small portion of India in POK).
10. Lord Elgin II (1894-1899)
- Chapekar Brothers assassinated two British officials-1897.
11. Lord Curzon (1899- 1905)
- To review Police administration- The Police commission appointed in 1902 – Under Sir Andrew Frazer.
- University Commission- 1902 and Indian Universities Act- 1904
- Calcutta Corporation Act- 1899.
- Ancient Monument Preservation Act-1904.
- Partition of Bengal- 1905.
- Curzon- Kitchener controversy.
- Younghusband’s Mission to Tibet – 1904.
12. Lord Minto II (1905-1910)
- Anti-partition and Swadeshi Movement Popularized.
- In the annual session of 1907, there was a split in Congress.
- Aga Khan Established the Muslim league in 1906.
13. Lord Harding II (1910-1916)
- Like Bombay and Madras, the Bengal Presidency was Created in 1911.
- The Capital transferred from Calcutta to Delhi in 1911.
- Madan Mohan Malaviya established Hindu Mahasabha in 1915.
- Coronation durbar- King George V held in Delhi in 1911.
14. Lord Chelmsford (1916-21)
- Annie Besant and Tilak formed Home Rule Leagues in 1916.
- Lucknow session of congress 1916.
- Lucknow pact – between Congress and the Muslim League in 1916.
- the foundation of Sabarmati Ashram – 1916.
- Champaran Satyagraha – 1916
- Kheda Satyagraha-1918.
- Satyagraha at Ahmedabad- 1918.
- Montague’s August Declaration- 1917.
- Government of India Act- 1919.
- Rowlett Act- 1919,
- The Jallianwalla Bagh massacre- 1919.
- Non-Cooperation and Khilafat Movement launched.
- Saddler’s commission 1917-for reform in Educational Policy.
- Death of Tilak – 1 August 1920.
- First Indian Became a governor- S.P.Sinha appointed as Governor of Bihar.
15. Lord Reading (1919- 1926)
- The incidence of Chauri Chaura- February 5, 1922, and withdrawal of Non- Cooperation Movement.
- Moplah rebellion- Kerala in 1921.
- Repeal of press Act 1910 and Rowlatt Act of 1919.
- Robbery in Kakori train- 1925.
- C.R Dass and Motilal Nehru established the Swaraj Party – 1922.
- Examination for ICS Both in London and Delhi came into effect from 1923.
16. Lord Irwin (1926- 1931)
- Simon commission in India- 1928.
- For the suggestion (Frame) of the constitution of India, A conference of all parties held at Lucknow in 1928, the report called Nehru Report.
- Murder of Saunders, Bomb blast in Assembly hall of Delhi,1929
- Purna Swaraj Resolution in 1929 in Lahore session of Congress.
- Gandhi started Dandi March (12 March 1930), Launched the Civil Disobedience Movement.
- “Deepavali Declaration” by Lord Irwin – 1929.
- Gandhi – Irwin Pact- 1931 and the Civil Disobedience Movement suspended.
17. Lord Willingdon (1931- 1936)
- The second round table Conference (1931) failed and the Civil disobedience movement resumed.
- Separate communal electorate setup.
- Poona Pact 1932.
- Third Round Table Conference 1932.
- Individual Civil Disobedience- 1933.
- The government of India Act of- 1935.
- All India Kishan Sabha Established- 1936
- Congress Socialist Party – 1934- By Acharya Narendra Dev and Jayaprakash Narayan.
- Burma separated from India in 1935.
18. Lord Linlithgow (1936- 1944)
- Congress got absolute majority in First General Election- 1936-37.
- In the 51st session of congress (1938) Subhash Chandra Bose elected as president of the congress.
- August offer- 1940.
- In 1940 – Winston Churchill was elected as prime minister of England.
- Quit India Resolution- 1942 ( crips offer failed, Prominent leaders arrested)
- “Divide and Quit” slogan at Karachi session -1944, of Muslim League.
19. Lord Wavell (1944- 1947)
- C.R Formula- 1944, (Gandhi and Jinnah Talk Failed as Jinnah rejected the offer because he wanted congress to accept the two-nation theory).
- Wavell Plan (Shimla Conference- June 1945)
- End of second world war in 1945.
- Cabinet Mission (May 1946).
- ‘Direct Action Day’- 16 August 1946, also called 1946 “Calcutta killings” by Muslim league.
- Interim Government was formed by Congress in September 1946. (September 2, 1946- August 15, 1947.)
- The end of British Rule in India was announced on February 20, 1947- by Clement Attlee (PM of England).
20. Lord Mountbatten (1947-1948)
- Indian Independence Bill introduced in House of commons.
- Boundary commission appointed under Sir Cyril Redcliff for partition.
You can also read: List of Governors general of India
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