A complete list of Viceroys of India and significant Events in their rule.
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1. Lord Canning (1858-1862)
- He served as the last governor-general during 1856- 57.
- The Government of India Act, 1858– Transfer of power to the Crown from East India Company.
- White mutiny by European troops -1859.
- The Police Act of 1861, and
- Indian Council Act of 1861
2. Lord Elgin I (1862-63)
- Wahabi Movement
3. Lord John Lawrence (1864-1869)
- Bhutan war – 1865.
- Establishment of High court at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1865.
4. Lord Mayo (1869-1872)
- Rajkot College in Kathiawar and Mayo college at Ajmer.
- Statistical survey of India Established.
- Department of Agriculture and commerce established.
- State railway introduced.
5. Lord Northbrook (1872-76)
- Prince of Wales visit in 1875.
- Trail of Gaekwar of Baroda.
- The Kuka movement in Punjab.
6. Lord Lytton (1876- 1880)
- Famine (scarcity of food) of 1876-78, Under the presidency of Richard Strachey- appointment of Famine Commission in 1878.
- Royal title Act of 1876- Queen Victoria assumed the title – ‘Kaiser-i-Hind ‘or ‘Queen Empress of India”. By this, the theory came that Britain would protect Indian states from internal as well as external problems.
- The Vernacular Press Act of 1878.
- The Arms Act- 1878.
- The second afghan War 1878-1880.
7.Lord Ripon (1880-1884)
- Vernacular Press Act Repealed in 1882.
- For improving Labour conditions – The First Factory Act 1881.
- Resolution of government on Local self-government -1882
- Under chairman Sir William Hunter- Education Commission Appointed.
- The controversy of Ilbert bill 1883-84.
8.Lord Dufferin (1884- 1888)
- Third Burmese War (1885-86)
- Indian National Congress established.
9. Lord Lansdowne (1888- 1894).
- Factory Act of 1891.
- Civil services categorized into imperial, provisional, and subordinate.
- Indian Council Act-1892.
- Durand commission – 1893- for defining Duran line between India and Afghanistan, (now in between Pakistan and Afghanistan, it also touches a small portion of India in POK).
10. Lord Elgin II (1894-1899)
- Chapekar Brothers assassinated two British officials-1897.
11. Lord Curzon (1899- 1905)
- To review Police administration- The Police commission appointed in 1902 – Under Sir Andrew Frazer.
- University Commission- 1902 and Indian Universities Act- 1904
- Calcutta Corporation Act- 1899.
- Ancient Monument Preservation Act-1904.
- Partition of Bengal- 1905.
- Curzon- Kitchener controversy.
- Younghusband’s Mission to Tibet – 1904.
12. Lord Minto II (1905-1910)
- Anti-partition and Swadeshi Movement Popularized.
- In the annual session of 1907, there was a split in Congress.
- Aga Khan Established the Muslim league in 1906.
13. Lord Harding II (1910-1916)
- Like Bombay and Madras, the Bengal Presidency was Created in 1911.
- The Capital transferred from Calcutta to Delhi in 1911.
- Madan Mohan Malaviya established Hindu Mahasabha in 1915.
- Coronation durbar- King George V held in Delhi in 1911.
14. Lord Chelmsford (1916-21)
- Annie Besant and Tilak formed Home Rule Leagues in 1916.
- Lucknow session of congress 1916.
- Lucknow pact – between Congress and the Muslim League in 1916.
- the foundation of Sabarmati Ashram – 1916.
- Champaran Satyagraha – 1916
- Kheda Satyagraha-1918.
- Satyagraha at Ahmedabad- 1918.
- Montague’s August Declaration- 1917.
- Government of India Act- 1919.
- Rowlett Act- 1919,
- The Jallianwalla Bagh massacre- 1919.
- Non-Cooperation and Khilafat Movement launched.
- Saddler’s commission 1917-for reform in Educational Policy.
- Death of Tilak – 1 August 1920.
- First Indian Became a governor- S.P.Sinha appointed as Governor of Bihar.
15. Lord Reading (1919- 1926)
- The incidence of Chauri Chaura- February 5, 1922, and withdrawal of Non- Cooperation Movement.
- Moplah rebellion- Kerala in 1921.
- Repeal of press Act 1910 and Rowlatt Act of 1919.
- Robbery in Kakori train- 1925.
- C.R Dass and Motilal Nehru established the Swaraj Party – 1922.
- Examination for ICS Both in London and Delhi came into effect from 1923.
16. Lord Irwin (1926- 1931)
- Simon commission in India- 1928.
- For the suggestion (Frame) of the constitution of India, A conference of all parties held at Lucknow in 1928, the report called Nehru Report.
- Murder of Saunders, Bomb blast in Assembly hall of Delhi,1929
- Purna Swaraj Resolution in 1929 in Lahore session of Congress.
- Gandhi started Dandi March (12 March 1930), Launched the Civil Disobedience Movement.
- “Deepavali Declaration” by Lord Irwin – 1929.
- Gandhi – Irwin Pact- 1931 and the Civil Disobedience Movement suspended.
17. Lord Willingdon (1931- 1936)
- The second round table Conference (1931) failed and the Civil disobedience movement resumed.
- Separate communal electorate setup.
- Poona Pact 1932.
- Third Round Table Conference 1932.
- Individual Civil Disobedience- 1933.
- The government of India Act of- 1935.
- All India Kishan Sabha Established- 1936
- Congress Socialist Party – 1934- By Acharya Narendra Dev and Jayaprakash Narayan.
- Burma separated from India in 1935.
18. Lord Linlithgow (1936- 1944)
- Congress got absolute majority in First General Election- 1936-37.
- In the 51st session of congress (1938) Subhash Chandra Bose elected as president of the congress.
- August offer- 1940.
- In 1940 – Winston Churchill was elected as prime minister of England.
- Quit India Resolution- 1942 ( crips offer failed, Prominent leaders arrested)
- “Divide and Quit” slogan at Karachi session -1944, of Muslim League.
19. Lord Wavell (1944- 1947)
- C.R Formula- 1944, (Gandhi and Jinnah Talk Failed as Jinnah rejected the offer because he wanted congress to accept the two-nation theory).
- Wavell Plan (Shimla Conference- June 1945)
- End of second world war in 1945.
- Cabinet Mission (May 1946).
- ‘Direct Action Day’- 16 August 1946, also called 1946 “Calcutta killings” by Muslim league.
- Interim Government was formed by Congress in September 1946. (September 2, 1946- August 15, 1947.)
- The end of British Rule in India was announced on February 20, 1947- by Clement Attlee (PM of England).
20. Lord Mountbatten (1947-1948)
- Indian Independence Bill introduced in House of commons.
- Boundary commission appointed under Sir Cyril Redcliff for partition.
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