Important Indian National Congress Sessions
Indian National Congress:
Retired English civil servant, A.O. Hume formed the Indian National Union which later became the Indian National Congress in 1885. The other founding members were Dadabhai Naoroji and Dinshaw Wacha.
There were 72 persons who attended The first session of the Indian National Congress held in Bombay in 1885 under the Presidency of Womesh Chandra Bonnergy.
At that time, the viceroy of India was Lord Dufferin, who gave permission to A. O. Hume for the first session.
- Kadambini Ganguly the first woman graduate of Calcutta University addressed the congress session in 1890.
Lala Lajpat Rai associated it with the idea of a “safety valve” to release the growing discontent of Indians. This idea was called the safety valve theory. Many views came from associated people like- Safety Valve Theory– by Lala Lajpat Rai, the Conspiracy Theory– by R.P. Dutt, and Lightning Conductor Theory– by Gopal Krishna Gokhale.
Safety Valve Theory:
The safety valve Theory was a theory that gave the idea to A.O Hume for the formation of the Congress that it would prove to be a ‘safety valve’ for releasing the growing dissatisfaction of the Indians.
Extremist leaders like Lala Lajpat Rai agreed with the ‘safety valve’ theory. The Marxist historian’s conspiracy theory’ was a descendant of the ‘safety valve’. For example, R.P. Dutt propounds that the Indian National Congress was born out of a conspiracy to vain a the popular uprising in India and the bourgeois leaders were a
party to it.
Bipan Chandra noticed the early Congress leaders used Hume as a ‘lightning conductor’ i.e., as a catalyst to bring together the nationalistic forces even if under the guise of a ‘safety valve’.
Aim and Objectives of Congress
In the initial stage, the main aims of Congress were:
- Found a democratic and Nationalist movement.
- To educate people in political fields and politicize
- For a movement, the establishment of Headquarters
- Promotion of friendly relations between Nationalist Political workers from different parts of the country.
- For the development of unity in people irrespective of religion caste and province.
- To promote and nurture Indian Nationhood.
List of Important Indian National Congress Sessions:
- President was W.C. Bonnerjee.
- The session was held in Bombay.
- In the first National Congress Session, 72 people participated.
Second National Congress Session: Dec. 28-1886, Calcutta
- The President of the 2nd National Congress session was Dadabhai Naoroji
- 2nd National Congress Session held in Calcutta.
- In this session, 436 representatives attended the conference.
- in this session, the most significant event was the merger of the National Congress and the national conference.
15th National Congress Session: Dec. 27-28/ 1899, Lucknow
- The President of the 15th National Congress Session was Ramesh Chandra Dutt
- The 15th National Congress session was held in Lucknow.
- The permanent fixation of Land revenue was demanded in the 15th National Congress Session.
21st National Congress Session: Dec. 27-30/1905, Banaras
- The President of the 21st National Congress Session was Gopal Krishna Gokhale
- 21st National Congress Session held in Banaras.
- In this session, Exasperation has shown against the partition of Bengal.
22nd National Congress Session: Dec. 26-29/1906, Calcutta
- The 22nd National Congress session was held under the Presidency of Dadabhai Naoroji
- The 22nd National Congress Session was held in Calcutta.
- The most important significance of this session was – First time the word ‘Swaraj’ was introduced.
23rd National Congress Session: Dec. 26-27/1907, Surat
- The 23rd National Congress session was held in Surat in December 1907 under the Presidency of Rash Behari Ghosh
- The split of part: Congress Party split into Moderates and Extremists.
24th National Congress Session: Dec. 29-30/1908, Madras
- President Rash Behari Ghosh
- The Constitution of Congress was drawn.
25th National Congress Session: Dec. 27-29/1909, Lahore
- President Madan Mohan Malviya
- Disapproval expressed for Separate electorates on the basis of religion- The Indian Council Act, 1909.
27th National Congress Session: Dec. 26-28/1911, Calcutta
- President Bishan Narayan Dhar
- ‘Jana Gana mana’ Sung for the first time
32nd National Congress Session: Dec. 26-30/1916, Lucknow
- A.C. Majumdar
- Reunion of Congress, the Lucknow pact was signed.
33rd National Congress Session: Dec. 28-29/1917, Calcutta
- Annie Besant
- The 33rd national congress session is known for the first woman president.
35th National Congress Session: Dec. 27-28/1919, Amritsar
- Motilal Nehru
- Strongly condemned the Jalliawala Bagh Massacre.
40th National Congress Session: 1924, Belgaum
- The only session presided over by Mahatma Gandhi.
41st National Congress Session: Dec. 26-28/1925, Kanpur
- Sarojini Naidu was the President of this session in Kanpur.
- Sarojini Naidu was the first Indian women President of the Indian National Congress
43rd National Congress Session: 1927, Madras
- Dr. M.A. Ansari was the President of the 1927 Session in Madras.
- Resolution against the use of Indian troops in China, Iran, and Mesopotamia.
- Boycott of Simon Commission
- Adoption of resolution on Purna Swaraj.
44th National Congress Session: Dec. 28-31/1928, Calcutta
- Motilal Nehru was the president of this session in Calcutta, in 1928.
- All India Youth Congress Formed
45th National Congress Session: Dec. 29-31/1929, Lahore
- Jawaharlal Nehru was the president of this session.
- The 45th session of the Indian National Congress is known for Resolution for Purna Swaraj.
- Civil disobedience movement for complete independence announced to launch.
- 26 January was recognized to celebrate as independence day.
46th National Congress Session: March-29/1931, Karachi
- Vallabh Bhai Patel
- Fundamental rights and progress of the national economy.
- Gandhi Irwin Pact
50th National Congress Session: April. 12-14/1936, Faizpur
- Jawaharlal Nehru
- The first rural session.
52nd National Congress Session: Feb. 19-21/1938, Haripura
- Subhash Chandra Bose
- The National Planning Committee set up under chairman Jawaharlal Nehru
53rd National Congress Session: March 10/1939, Tripuri
- Subhas Chandra Bose
- Bose was elected but he resigned as Gandhi was not agreed for his presidency, and in his place Rajendra Prasad became president.
55th National Congress Session: Nov. 23/1946, Meerut
- Acharya J.B. Kripalani
- This was the last session before Independence.
56th National Congress Session: Dec. 18-19/1948, Jaipur
- Pattabhi Sitaramayya.
- The 56th National Congress Session was the first session after independence i Jaipur.
57th National Congress Session: Sep.21-22/1950, Nasik
- Purushottam Das Tondon
- Purusottam Das resigned in 1951 and Nehru became president.
70th National Congress Session: 1965, Durgapur
- K. Kamaraj
- The 70th session was the last session of the Indian National Congress in 1965.
You can also read:
- The August offer
- Cripps Mission – 1942
- Militant Nationalism in India -(1905- 1909)
- Constitutional Development of India
- Indian National Congress
- Mahatma Gandhi and National Movements
Thank you 🙂