The Era of Militant Nationalism in India
Militant Nationalism in India -(1905- 1909)
A militant nationalist approach to political activity emerged in the 1890s and it come visible by 1905. In addition to this trend, a revolutionary wing also came into existence.
Growth of Militant Nationalism
Many factors were responsible for the rise of militant nationalism. The leaders were now more aware and understanding of the real nature of British Rule seeing that the British government was not conceding any of their important demands, the more militant among politically conscious got disappointed and initiated a more effective mode of political action.
The economic suffering of the 1890s further exposed the exploitative character of colonial rule. 90 lakh persons were killed by famines between 1896 and 1900. The bubonic plague affected large areas of the Deccan. There were large-scale riots in the Deccan.
Reason for Growth of Militant Nationalism
- In 1892 Nationalists criticized The Indian Councils Act as it was not satisfying for them.
- Natu brothers were deported without trial and Bal Gangadhar Tilak and others were imprisoned on charges of sedition in 1897.
- anti-democratic laws under IPC Section 124 A were further amplified with new provisions under IPC Section 156 A- 1898
- The number of Indian members in Calcutta Corporations was reduced- 1899.
- Official Secrets Act restrain freedom of the press- 1904.
- Indian Universities Act made more government control over universities, which it described as factories producing political revolutionaries- 1904.
- Growth of Culture and Self-respect– Tilak, Aurobindo Ghosh, and Bipin Chandra Pal repeatedly urged the nationalists to rely on the character and capacities of the people of India.
- Not satisfied with politics –New and young politicians were not satisfied with the National Congress and the Moderate Politicians. They strongly opposed the method of their peaceful and constitutional rules that was called the “Three ‘p’s- i.e. Prayer, Petition, and protest.
- Education and intellectual development– education played an important role and increased awareness of social and cultural activities.
- Impact of the press- The press played an important role in the spread of militant Nationalism in India and it spread the thought of militant in various ways.
- Japan after 1868 emerged as an industrial power and opened the eyes of Indians that economic progress was possible even in an Asian country without any help from an external country.
- The victory of Ethiopia over Italy
- The victory of Japan over Russia in 1905.
- Nationalist movements worldwide.
The Impact of Increasing Westernisation: Thinkers found the myth of Western superiority by referring to the richness of Indian civilization in the past. Dayananda Saraswati gave the political message ‘India for the Indians’. The psychological and moral inspiration of the new leadership was Indian. Swami Vivekananda, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, and Dayananda Saraswati inspired many young nationalists with their forceful and articulate arguments, painting India’s past in brighter colors than the British ideologues had.
Policies of Curzon –Curzon refused to recognize India as a nation and insulted Indian nationalists and intellectuals by describing their activities as “letting off of gas”. Administrative measures adopted during his rule—the Official Secrets Act, the Indian Universities Act, the Calcutta Corporation Act, and, above all, the partition of Bengal—made clear Indian minds about the basically reactionary nature of British rule in India.
The emergence of a Trained Leadership – The trained and new leadership got enabled to use masses of manpower in the right direction at the right time. This energy was utilized during the time of the Swadeshi movement.
The Ideologies of Extremists
- The hatred for foreign rule.
- Having faith in the capacities of the masses
- Goal of Swarajya
- They advocated Direct political action and self-sacrifices.
You can also read:
- The Swadeshi and Boycott Movement!!!
- Constitutional Development of India
- List of Important Indian National Congress Sessions
- Indian National Congress
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