Chemical classification of hormones
Hormones can be classified on the basis of their chemical nature, composition, mechanism of action, effect, and endocrine glands. Hormones may be derived from any amino acids, cholesterol, or phospholipids.
On the basis of chemical nature, hormones can be classified as-
- Amine hormones
- Peptide hormones
- Protein hormones
- Steroid hormones
- Glycoprotein hormones
Amine hormones– These are amino acids with modified groups, for example- the carboxyl group of norepinephrine is replaced by the benzene ring.
Peptide hormones– These are made up of a short chain of linked amino acids. This chain of amino acids ranges from three to more than two hundred amino acids. peptide hormones include molecules that are short polypeptide chains, such as antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin
- Peptide hormones are soluble in water because of their hydrophilic nature.
Protein hormones– These are made along a chain of linked amino acids.
- These are protein hormones, which promote amino acid movement in cells and these amino acids incorporate with proteins.
Steroid hormones– These hormones are derived from lipid cholesterol. These are of two types one is a corticosteroid and the other is a sex steroid.
- All steroid hormones are made by the same basic four-fused ring structure and these are secreted by the adrenal cortex and gonads.
- These are lipid hormones.
- These hormones are lipophilic. (lipophilic- these chemical compounds having the ability to dissolve in fat.)
Glycoprotein hormones (GPHs) are found the most complex molecule as hormones in vertebrates. These hormones function in a complex endocrine system. that regulates normal growth, sexual development, and reproductive system development.
major vertebrate hormone and their chemical nature
|Growth hormone (GH)||protein|
|Triiodothyronine(T3) and thyroxin (T4)||Amine|
|Parathyroid hormone (PTH)||Peptide|
|Adrenal medulla– epinephrine and Norepinephrine||Amine|
|Adrenal Cortex– Glucocorticoids, Mineralocorticoids||Steroid|
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