Chemical classification of hormones

Hormones can be classified on the basis of their chemical nature, composition, mechanism of action, effect, and endocrine glands. Hormones may be derived from any amino acids, cholesterol, or phospholipids

Classification of hormones on the basis of chemical nature

On the basis of their chemical nature, hormones can be classified as

  • Amine hormones
  • Peptide hormones
  • Protein hormones
  • Steroid hormones
  • Glycoprotein hormones
On the basis of chemical nature, classification of hormones hormones

Chemical Classification of Hormones

Amine Hormones:

Amine hormones are amino acids with modified groups, for example- the carboxyl group of norepinephrine is replaced by the benzene ring.

Peptide Hormones:

Peptide hormones are made up of a short chain of linked amino acids. This chain of amino acids ranges from three to more than two hundred amino acids. peptide hormones include molecules that are short polypeptide chains, such as antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin

  • Peptide hormones are soluble in water because of their hydrophilic nature.
Protein Hormones: 

Protein hormones are made along a chain of linked amino acids.

  • These are protein hormones, which promote amino acid movement in cells and these amino acids incorporate with proteins.
Steroid Hormones:

Steroid hormones are derived from lipid cholesterol. There are two types of steroid hormones one is a corticosteroid and the other is a sex steroid.

  • All steroid hormones are made by the same basic four-fused ring structure and these are secreted by the adrenal cortex and gonads.
  • These are lipid hormones.
  • These hormones are lipophilic. (lipophilic- these chemical compounds have the ability to dissolve in fat.)
Glycoprotein hormone

Glycoprotein hormones (GPHs) are found the most complex molecule as hormones in vertebrates. These hormones function in a complex endocrine system. that regulates normal growth, sexual development, and reproductive system development.

major vertebrate hormones and their chemical nature/ chemical nature of hormones:

Pituitary gland  
Oxytocin Peptide
Antidiuretic hormone(ADH) Peptide
Growth hormone (GH) protein
Prolactin(PRL) Protein
Follicle-stimulating hormone Glycoprotein
Luteinizing hormone Glycoprotein
Adrenocorticotropic hormone peptide
Thyroid Gland  
Triiodothyronine(T3) and thyroxin (T4) Amine
Calcitonin peptide
Parathyroid gland  
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Peptide
Insulin protein
Glucagon Protein
Adrenal Gland  
Adrenal medulla– epinephrine and Norepinephrine Amine
Adrenal Cortex– Glucocorticoids, Mineralocorticoids Steroid
Testes– Androgen Steroid
Ovaries– Estrogens Steroid
Pineal gland-Melatonin Amine
Thymus-Thymosin peptide

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