What are Biosphere reserves?
Biosphere reserves are ‘learning places for sustainable development. They provide support in research and analysis of issues of conservation of sustainable development. They are sites for testing interdisciplinary approaches to understand and manage changes and interactions between social and ecological systems. It includes conflict prevention and management of biodiversity. They conserve genetic resources, species, ecosystem, and landscape. Biosphere reserves are declared by the Central or state government through the program of MAB under UNESCO.
Man and Biosphere- MAB: Launched by UNESCO in 1971 for the establishment of the scientific basis for the improvement of the relationship between man and the environment.
The man and Biosphere define biospheres as:
- Core Area: it comprises a strictly protected ecosystem that contributes to the conservation of landscapes, ecosystems, species, and genetic variation.
- Buffer Zone: It surrounds the core area. The buffer zone is used for activities compatible with sound ecological practices which reinforce scientific research, monitoring, training, and education.
- Transition Area: It is the part of the reserve where the greatest activity is allowed, foresting economic and human development that is socio-culturally and ecologically sustainable.
- 85 sites in 31 countries in Africa
- 33 sites in 12 countries in the Arab States
- 157 sites in 24 countries in Asia and the Pacific
- 302 sites in 38 countries in Europe and North America
- 130 sites in 21 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Which is the first Biosphere Reserve of India?
Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve the part of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka is the first Biosphere Reserve of India.
Which is the largest and smallest biosphere reserve in India?
The largest is Runn of kutch in Gujarat and the smallest one is Dibru- Saikhoa in Assam.
There are eighteen Biosphere reserves in India listed below:
|1||Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve||1986||Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka
||Nilgiri tahr, tiger, lion-tailed macaque|
|2||Nanda devi Biosphere Reserve||1988||Uttarakhand
Chamoli District, Pithoragarh District & Bageshwar District
|Snow leopard, Himalayan black bear|
|3||Nokrek Biosphere Reserve||1988||Meghalaya
West Garo Hills
|4||Gulf of Mannar||1989||Tamil Nadu
The Indian part of the Gulf of Mannar extending from Rameswaram island in the north to Kanyakumari
|5||Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve||1989||West Bengal
delta of Ganges and Brahmaputra river system
|Royal Bengal tiger|
|6||Manas Biosphere Reserve||1989||Assam
||Asiatic elephant, Tiger, Assam roofed turtle, Golden langur, Pigmy hog|
|7||Simlipal Biosphere Reserve||1994||Odisha
Part of Mayurbhanj district
|Gaur, royal Bengal tiger, Asian elephant|
Part of Siang and Dibang Valley
|Mishmi takin, Musk deer|
|9||Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve||1999||Madhya Pradesh
Parts of Betul District, Hoshangabad District and Chhindwara District
|Giant squirrel, Flying squirrel|
|10||Achanakmar- Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve||2005||Madhyapradesh
Annupur, Dindori and Bilaspur
|Four-horned antelope, Indian wild dog, Sarus crane, white-rumped vulture, sacred grove bush frog|
|11||Great Rann of Kutch Biosphere Reserve||2008||Gujarat
Kutch, Morbi, Surendranagar, Patan districts
the largest biosphere reserve in India.
|Indian wild ass|
|12||Cold Desert||2009||Himachal Pradesh
Pin Valley National Park and surrounding; Chandratal and Sarchu & Kibber Wildlife Sanctuary
|13||Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve||2000||Sikkim
Parts of Kangchenjunga
|Snow leopard, red panda|
|14||Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve||20001||Kerala, Tamilnadu
Neyyar, Peppara and Shenduruny Wildlife Sanctuary and their adjoining areas
|Nilgiri tahr, Asian elephant|
|15||Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve||1989||Andaman and Nicobar islands||Saltwater crocodile|
|16||Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve||1997||Assam
Part of Dibrugarh and Tinsukia districts
|White-winged wood duck, water buffalo, black-breasted parrotbill, tiger, capped langur|
|17||Seshachalm hills Biosphere Reserve||2010||Andhra Pradesh
parts of Chittoor and Kadapa districts
|18||Panna Biosphere Reserve||2011||Madhya Pradesh
Part of Panna and Chhattarpur districts in Madhya Pradesh
12 reserves announced as World Network of Biosphere Reserves by UNESCO under Man And Biosphere (MAB) program list.
|1||2000||Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve||Tamilnadu, Kerala, Karnataka|
|2||2001||Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve||TamilNadu|
|4||2004||Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve||Uttarakhand|
|5||2009||Nokrek Biosphere Reserve||Meghalaya|
|6||2009||Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve||Madhyapradesh|
|7||2009||Simlipal Biosphere Reserve||Odisha|
|8||2012||Achankamar Biosphere Reserve||Madhyapradesh and Chhattisgarh|
|9||2013||Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve||Andaman and Nicobar Islands|
|10||2016||Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve||Kerala and Tamil Nadu|
|11||2018||Khangchendzonga National park||Sikkim|
|12||2020||Panna National Park||Madhyapradesh|
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