RAMSAR- Wetland Sites in India

What is the RAMSAR Wetland Site?

The Ramsar Site is a wetland site designated for international importance by the Ramsar convention.

Introduction of Ramsar Convention:

Ramsar Convention (established in 1971 by UNESCO, and came into force in 1975) is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands that recognizes the fundamental ecological functions and economic, cultural, recreational, and scientific values of these sites.

  • The name Ramsar was given after the name of the city Ramsar in Iran, the treaty signed there in 1971.
  • Every year 2nd February is celebrated as world wetland Day, which was celebrated for the first time in 1997.
  • There are currently over 2,400 Ramsar Sites around the world. They cover over 2.5 million square kilometers
  • The number of sites in the United Kingdom i.e. 175 and Mexico is 142. 
  • The world’s first Ramsar Site was the Cobourg Peninsula in Australia, designated in 1974.

The largest Sites are Rio Negro in Brazil (120,000 square kilometers), Ngiri-Tumba-Maindombe in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Queen Maud Gulf in Canada; these Sites each cover over 60,000 square km. Others are as small as one hectare.

What is Wetland?

Wetland is a distinct ecosystem flooded by water permanently or seasonally. These include flooded forests, floodplains, marshes, rivers and lakes, coral reefs, etc. The hydrophytes, hydric soil, and water-saturated land are the main characteristics of this land.

Importance of Wetland

Wetland plays an important role in the ecosystem, they improve natural water quality, protects from flood, and controls shoreline erosion. It helps in recreation and aesthetic appreciation and natural products without any cost.

World’s first wetland site

The world’s first site was the Coburg Peninsula in Australia, in 1974. 

latest updates about Indian Ramsar sites

  • 50th anniversary of the Ramsar Convention on 2nd February 2021, this day is also celebrated as World Wetland Day. India established the Centre for Wetland Conservation & Management under the Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) in Chennai at National Centre for Sustainable Coastal Management (NCSCM).

RAMSAR- Wetland Sites in India

  • One of the Ramsar sites in India Sambhar lake is in news because of the deterioration of salt mining.
  • Four new Wetland sites in India are added to the list.
  • Five new Ramsar wetland sites were added to the list in July 2022.
  • 21 new Ramsar sites were added in August.
  • Tamil Nadu has the maximum number of Ramsar sites which is 14 followed by Uttar Pradesh having 10.
first Ramsar site in India:

The Chilka Lake in Orissa and Keoladeo National Park in Rajasthan are recognized as the first Ramsar site in India.

The smallest and largest wetland in India:

Sunderbans is the largest and Renuka wetland in Himachal Pradesh is the smallest Ramsar wetland in India.

RAMSAR -Wetland Sites in India upsc exams

RAMSAR -Wetland Sites in India

    List of 75 Ramsar Wetland sites in India

    The 75 Ramsar wetland sites are listed in the table below:

    Sl.No.   Name of Site State Location Date of Declaration Area(in sq. km.)
    1 Asan Conservation Reserve Uttarakhand 21.7.2020 4.444
    2 Asthamudi Wetland Kerala 19.8.2002 614
    3 Beas Conservation Reserve Punjab 26.9.2019 64.289
    4 Bhitarkanika Mangroves Orissa 19.8.2002 650
    5 Bhoj Wetlands Madhya Pradesh 19.8.2002 32.01
    6 Chandertal Wetland Himachal Pradesh 8.11.2005 0.49
    7 Chilka Lake Orissa 1.10.1981 1165
    8 Deepor Beel Assam 19.8.2002 40
    9 East Kolkata Wetlands West Bengal 19.8.2002 125
    10 Harike Lake Punjab 23.3.1990 41
    11 Hokera Wetland Jammu and Kashmir 8.11.2005 13.75
    12 Kabartal Wetland Bihar

    In Begusarai district

    21.07.2020 26.20
    13 Kanjli Lake Punjab 22.1.2002 1.83
    14 Keoladeo Ghana NP Rajasthan 1.10.1981 28.73
    15 Keshopur-Miani Community Reserve Punjab 26.9.2019 3.439
    16 Kolleru Lake Andhra Pradesh 19.8.2002 901
    17 Loktak Lake Manipur 23.3.1990 266
    18 Lonar Lake Maharashtra 22.7.2020 4.27
    19 Nalsarovar Bird Sanctuary Gujarat 24.09.2012 120
    20 Nandur Madhameshwar Maharashtra 21.6.2019 14.37
    21 Nangal Wildlife Sanctuary Punjab 26.9.2019 1.16
    22 Nawabganj Bird Sanctuary Uttar Pradesh

    Unnao district 

    19.9.2019 2.246
    23 Parvati Agra Bird Sanctuary Uttar Pradesh

    situated in the Gonda District 

    2.12.2019 7.22
    24 Point Calimere Wildlife and Bird Sanctuary Tamil Nadu 19.8.2002 385
    25 Pong Dam Lake

    Also known as Maharana Pratap Sagar on Beas river

    Himachal Pradesh 19.8.2002 156.62
    26 Renuka Wetland Himachal Pradesh 8.11.2005 0.2
    27 Ropar Lake Punjab 22.1.2002 13.65
    28 Rudrasagar Lake Tripura 8.11.2005 2.4
    29 Saman Bird Sanctuary Uttar Pradesh

    Mainpuri district, in western Uttar Pradesh.

    2.12.2019 52.63
    30 Samaspur Bird Sanctuary Uttar Pradesh

    situated near Salon in Raebareli district

    3.10.2019 79.94
    31 Sambhar Lake Rajasthan 23.3.1990 240
    32 Sandi Bird Sanctuary Uttar Pradesh

    Hardoi district of Uttar Pradesh

    26.9.2019 30.85
    33 Sarsai Nawar Jheel Uttar Pradesh

    Etawah district

    19.9.2019 16.13
    34 Sasthamkotta Lake Kerala 19.8.2002 3.73
    35 Sunderbans Wetland West Bengal 30.1.2019 4230
    36 Surinsar-Mansar Lakes Jammu and Kashmir 8.11.2005 3.5
    37 Sur Sarovar

    also known as Keetham Lake

    Uttar Pradesh

    In Agra district

    21.8.2020 4.31
    38 Tso Kar Wetland Complex Ladakh 17.11.2020 95.77
    39 Tsomoriri Lake Jammu and Kashmir 19.8.2002 120
    40 Upper Ganga River
    (Brijghat to Narora Stretch)
    Uttar Pradesh 8.11.2005 265.9
    41 Vembanad Kol Wetland Kerala 19.8.2002 1512.5
    42. Wular Lake Jammu & Kashmir 23.3.1990 189
    43. Wadhvana wetland Gujarat. It is located in Dabhoi Tehsil (Taluka), Vadodara  06-08-2021 630 ha
    44. The Thol Lake  wildlife sanctuary   Mehsana district of Gujarat state 06-08-2021 699 ha
    45. Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary

    Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary is a human-made freshwater wetland and is the largest wetland in Haryana State

    Haryana State

     

     

    06-08-2021 412 ha
    46. Sultanpur National Park
    Gurugram, Haryana
    06-08-2021 142.5 ha
    47. Haiderpur Wetland
    Uttar Pradesh
    8-12-2021 69.08 sqkm
    48. Khijadia Bird Sanctuary
    Gujarat
       
    49. Bakhira Bird Sanctuary
    Uttar Pradesh
       
    50. Karaikal Bird Sanctuary
    Tamil Nadu
    July 2022  
    51. Pallikaranai Marsh
    Tamil Nadu
    July 2022  
    52. Pichavaram Mangrove
    Tamil Nadu
    July 2022  
    53. Pala or Palak Wetland
    Mizoram

    July 2022

     
    54 Sakhya Sagar
    Madhya Pradesh

    July 2022

     
    55. Koonthankulam Bird Sanctuary

    Man-made wetland

    Tamil Nadu
    August 2022
    72.04 ha
    56.

    Satkosia Gorge

    The gorge Satk0sia is over Mahanadi in Odisha.

    It is the meeting point of two biogeographic regions of India; the Deccan Peninsula and the Eastern Ghats, contributing to immense biodiversity

    Odisha
    August 2022
    98196.
    57 Nanda Lake

    The majority of the area is intermittent freshwater marshes that lie adjacent to one of the major rivulets of the Zauri River

    Goa
    August 2022
    42.01
    58 Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve

    It is the first Marine Biosphere reserve in South East Asia

    Tamil Nadu
    August 2022
    53671.88
    59 Ranganathituu Bird Sanctuary

    This site has been listed as one of the important bird Areas (IBA) in Karnataka and India by the Bombay Natural History society.

    Karnataka
    Mandya district
    August 2022
    517.70
    60 Vembannur Wetland Complex

    It is a human-made inland tank.

    This wetland forms part of the Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (IBA) and hence part of BirdLife International Data Zone

    Tamil Nadu
    August 2022
    19.75
    61. Vellode bird Sanctuary

    Also known as Periyakulam Yeri

    Tamil Nadu
    August 2022
    77.19
    62. Sirpur wetland
    Madhya Pradesh
    August 2022
    161
    63. Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary
    Tamil Nadu
    August 2022
    40.35
    64. Udhayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary
    Tamil Nadu
    August 2022
    43.77
    11 more wetlands are added to the list of Ramsar sites in India

    Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1851484

    65. Tampara Lake

    It is a freshwater lake in the Ganjam district of Odisha.

    Odisha
    August 2022
    300
    66. Hirakud Reservoir

    It is the largest earthen dam in Odisha.

    Odisha
    August 2022
    65400
    67. Ansupa Lake

    The largest freshwater lake in Odisha. It is an oxbow lake formed by the river Mahanadi.

    Odisha
    August 2022
    231
    68. Yashwant Sagar
    Madhya Pradesh
    August 2022
    822.90
    69. Chitrangudi Bird sanctuary

    Also called ‘Chitrangudi Kanmoli’

    Tamil Nadu
    August 2022
    260.47
    70. Suchindram Theroor wetland complex
    Tamil Nadu
    August 2022
    94.23
    71. Vadavur Bird sactuary
    Tamil Nadu
    August 2022
    112.64
    72. Aknjirankulam Bird sanctuary
    Tamil Nadu
    August 2022
    96.89
    73. Thane creek
    Maharashtra
    August 2022
    6521.08
    74. Hygam Wetland Conservation Reserve

    Hygam Wetland falls within the River Jhelum basin

    Jammu and Kashmir
    August 2022
    801.82
    75. Shallbugh Wetland Conservation Reserve
    Jammu and Kashmir
    August 2022
    1675
       
     

     

     

    Click here to read 10 new Ramsar site

    Ten New RAMSAR Sites of India

     

    RAMSAR- Wetland Sites in India -ramsar sites in India UPSC

    RAMSAR- Wetland Sites in India

       

      Five New Ramsar Sites in India

      References – http://moef.gov.in/en/ 

      https://www.ramsar.org/sites-countries/ramsar-sites-around-the-world

      (Source:  Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India)

      You can also Read:

      Ten New RAMSAR Sites of India

       

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