Tiger Reserves in India
Important facts about project tiger:
Project Tiger was launched by the Government of India in the year 1973 to save the endangered species of tiger in the country. Starting from nine (9) reserves in 1973, the number is grown up to fifty-three (53).
There are 53 tiger reserves in India, governed by Project Tiger. The Project Tiger is administered by the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA).
- Project Tiger is an ongoing Centrally Sponsored Scheme of the Ministry of Environment, Forests, and Climate Change providing central assistance to the tiger States for tiger conservation in designated tiger reserves.
NTCA: National Tiger Conservation Authority
Insights of NTCA:
The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) has been constituted under section 38 L (1) of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972
- Providing statutory authority to Project Tiger so that compliance with its directives becomes legal.
- Fostering accountability of Center-State in management of Tiger Reserves, by providing a basis for MoU with States within our federal structure.
- Providing for oversight by Parliament.
- Addressing livelihood interests of local people in areas surrounding Tiger Reserves.
Important facts about tigers
- Scientific Name of Tiger: Panthera tigris
- Position in IUCN category: Endangered
- Madhya Pradesh is called as Tiger State
Numbers of Tigers in India: India has now 80 percent of tigers in the world. In 2006, there were 1,411 tigers which increased to 1,706 in 2010, 2,226 in 2014 and 2,967 in 2018. According to an estimation report, in 2018 more than half of the tigers are in Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka.
Distribution of Tiers in India:
- 526 tigers – Madhya Pradesh
- 524 tiger- Karnataka
- 442 tigers- Uttarakhand
- 312 tigers- Maharastra
- 264 Tigers- Tamil Nadu
- The number of wild tigers globally rose from 3,159 in 2010 to 3,890 in 2016 according to World Wildlife Fund and Global Tiger Forum
Techniques used for tiger Census:
- Pugmark Census Technique – Footprint (pug mark) recorded and Identified.
- DNA Fingerprinting- Identification of tigers from scats.
- Camera Trapping – The photograph of tigers identified with their stripes is a unique feature.
Internation tiger day: To raise awareness for tiger conservation, every year 29 July is celebrated as Global Tiger Day, also called International Tiger Day.
The Zones in Tiger Reserves in India:
- The core areas have the legal status of a national park or a sanctuary,
- whereas the buffer or peripheral areas are a mix of forest and non-forest land, managed as a multiple-use area.
- The Project Tiger aims to foster an exclusive tiger agenda in the core areas of tiger reserves, with an inclusive people-oriented agenda in the buffer.
List of Tiger Reserves in India
The list of tiger reserves in India is given in the table:
|S. No||Name of Tiger Reserve||Name of State|
Jim Corbett National Park is the oldest national park in India and was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park to protect the endangered Bengal tiger.
It is located in the Nainital district and Pauri Garhwal district of Uttarakhand.
The park was the first to come under the Project Tiger initiative.
Some part of this tiger reserve comes under Uttar Pradesh is called the Amangarh Tiger reserve.
Kanha Tiger Reserve, also known as Kanha–Kisli National Park, is one of the tiger reserves of India and the largest national park of the state of Madhya Pradesh.
|4||Nagarjunsagar Srisailam (1982-83)
Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve is the largest tiger reserve in India. The reserve spreads over five districts, Kurnool District, Prakasam District, Guntur District, Nalgonda District, and Mahabub Nagar district.
Manas National Park or Manas Wildlife Sanctuary is a national park, UNESCO Natural World Heritage site, a Project Tiger reserve, an elephant reserve, and a biosphere reserve in Assam, India. Located in the Himalayan foothills,
Melghat was declared a tiger reserve and was among the first nine tiger reserves notified in 1973-74 under the Project Tiger.
The Palamau Tiger Reserve is in Jharkhand, India, and the only one in this state. It forms part of Betla National Park and Palamau Wildlife Sanctuary.
Ranthambore National Park is a national park in Rajasthan, northern India, it acquires an area of 1,334 km2 (515 sq mi). It is bounded to the north by the Banas River and to the south by the Chambal River. Ranthambore National Park is named after the historic Ranthambore Fort, which lies within the park.
Similipal National Park is a national park and a tiger reserve in the Mayurbhanj district in the Indian state of Odisha covering 2,750 km2 (1,060 sq mi).
The Sundarbans National Park is a national park, tiger reserve, and biosphere reserve in West Bengal, India. It is part of the Sundarbans on the Ganges Delta, and adjacent to the Sundarban Reserve Forest in Bangladesh.
Periyar National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary (PNP) is a protected area located in the districts of Idukki and Pathanamthitta in Kerala, India. It is notable as an elephant reserve and a tiger reserve
Sariska Tiger Reserve is a tiger reserve in Alwar district, Rajasthan, India. It stretches over an area of 881 km2 (340 sq mi) comprising scrub-thorn arid forests, dry deciduous forests, grasslands, and rocky hills.
Buxa Tiger Reserve is a tiger reserve in northern West Bengal, India, covering an area of 760 km2 (290 sq mi). In altitude, it ranges from 60 m (200 ft) in the Gangetic Plains to 1,750 m (5,740 ft) bordering the Himalayas in the north. At least 284 bird species inhabit the reserve.
Indravati National Park is a national park located in the Bijapur district of Chhattisgarh state of India. It derives its name from the nearby Indravati River. It is home to one of the last populations of rare wild buffalo.
Namdapha National Park is a 1,985 km2 (766 sq mi) large protected area in Arunachal Pradesh of Northeast India. With more than 1,000 floral and about 1,400 faunal species, it is a biodiversity hotspot in the Eastern Himalayas.
The Dudhwa National Park is a national park in the Terai belt of marshy grasslands of northern Uttar Pradesh, India. It stretches over an area of 490.3 km2 (189.3 sq mi), with a buffer zone of 190 km2 (73 sq mi). It is part of the Dudhwa Tiger Reserve in the Kheri and Lakhimpur districts
|17||Kalakkad Mundanthurai (1988–89)
Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (KMTR) located in the Southern Western Ghats in Tirunelveli district and Kanyakumari district in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu, is the second-largest protected area in Tamil Nadu. It is part of the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve.
Valmiki National Park, Tiger Reserve, and Wildlife Sanctuary, located at the India-Nepal border in the West Champaran district of Bihar, India on the bank of river Gandak. It is the only National park in Bihar.
Pench Tiger Reserve or Pench National Park is one of the premier tiger reserves of India and the first one to straddle across two states – Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. Ordinarily, the reference to Pench is mostly to the tiger reserve in Madhya Pradesh(M.P).
|20||Thadoba Andhari (1993–94)
The Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve is a wildlife sanctuary in the Chandrapur district of Maharashtra state in India. It is Maharashtra’s oldest and largest national park. Created in 1955, the reserve includes the Tadoba National Park and the Andhari Wildlife Sanctuary.
Bandhavgarh National Park is a national park of India, located in the Umaria district of Madhya Pradesh. Bandhavgarh, with an area of 105 square kilometers (41 sq mi), was declared a national park in 1968 and then became Tiger Reserve in 1993.
Panna National Park is a national park located in the Panna and Chhatarpur districts of Madhya Pradesh in India. It has an area of 542.67 km2 (209.53 sq mi).
Dampa Tiger Reserve or Dampha Tiger Reserve is a tiger reserve of western Mizoram, India
Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area and tiger reserve as part of the Project Tiger,
|25||Pench – MH (1998-99)
It is in Maharastra with an area of 741.22 square km
Pakke Tiger Reserve, also known as Pakhui Tiger Reserve, is a Project Tiger reserve in the Pakke Kessang district of Arunachal Pradesh in northeastern India.
Nameri National Park is a national park in the foothills of the eastern Himalayas in the Sonitpur District of Assam, India, about 35 km from Tezpur.
Satpura Tiger Reserve (STR) also known as Satpura National Park is located in the Hoshangabad District of Madhya Pradesh in India. Its name is derived from the Satpura range. It covers an area of 524 km2
Annamalai Tiger Reserve, earlier known as Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park
Sitanadi Wildlife Sanctuary is located in Dhamtari District, Chhattisgarh, India. Sitanadi Wildlife Sanctuary is a famous tourist attraction that is frequented by wildlife enthusiasts throughout the year. The wildlife sanctuary was established in 1974 under the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972.
Satkosia Tiger Reserve is a tiger reserve located in the Angul district of Odisha, India covering an area of 988.30 km².
Kaziranga National Park is a national park in the Golaghat, Karbi Anglong, and Nagaon districts of the state of Assam, India. The sanctuary, which hosts two-thirds of the world’s great one-horned rhinoceroses, is a World Heritage Site.
The Achanakmar Wildlife Sanctuary is an Indian sanctuary in Mungeli district, Chhattisgarh State. It had been established in 1975, under the provisions of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act of 1972, and declared a Tiger Reserve under Project Tiger, in 2009.
Kali Tiger Reserve is a protected area and tiger reserve. It is located in Uttara Kannada district, in Karnataka, India. The park is a habitat of Bengal tigers, black panthers, and Indian elephants, amongst other distinctive fauna.
Sanjay – Dubri (2011)
Sanjay National Park is a national park in the Koriya district of Chhattisgarh and Sidhi, Singrauli districts of Madhya Pradesh state, India. It covers an area of 466.657 km2(180.177 sq mi) and is a part of the Sanjay-Dubri Tiger Reserve.
The Mudumalai National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary also a declared tiger reserve, lies in the northwestern side of the Nilgiri Hills, in Nilgiri District, about 150 kilometers (93 mi) north-west of Coimbatore city in Tamil Nadu, India. It shares its boundaries with the states of Karnataka and Kerala.
Nagarhole National Park is a national park located in Kodagu district and Mysore district in Karnataka, India. It is one of India’s premier Tiger Reserves along with the adjoining Bandipur Tiger Reserve and Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary.
Parambikulam Tiger Reserve, which also includes the erstwhile Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, is a 391 square kilometers protected area in Palakkad district of Kerala state, South India
Sahyadri Tiger Reserve is a reserve in the state of Maharashtra, located in the Sahyadri Ranges of the Western Ghats of Maharashtra, it is part of the ecoregions of North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests and North Western Ghats montane rain forests.
|40||Biligiri Ranganatha Temple (2012)
located in Chamarajanagar district of
Kawal Tiger Reserve is located at Jannaram Mandal of Mancherial District in the Telangana state of India. Govt of India declared the Kawal wildlife sanctuary as Tiger Reserve in 2012. The reserve is the oldest sanctuary in the northern Telangana region of the state
Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve is a protected area and tiger reserve in the Eastern Ghats in the Erode District of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
|43||Mukandra Hills (2013–14)
The tiger reserve was constituted in the year 2013 which encompasses the area of Mukandra National Park, Dara Sanctuary, Jawahar Sagar Sanctuary, and part of Chambal Sanctuary (from Garadia Mahadev to Jawahar Sagar Dam), forming its core / critical tiger habitat. The forests of Kota, Chittorgarh, and Jhalawar are included in the buffer.
Navegaon National Park is a National park located in the Arjuni Morgaon subdivision of Gondia district in the state of Maharashtra, India. The Dr. Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary, Navegaon is home to almost 60% of the bird species found in entire Maharashtra.
Pilibhit Tiger Reserve located in Pilibhit and Shahjahanpur districts of Uttar Pradesh was notified as a tiger reserve in 2014. It forms part of the Terai Arc Landscape in the upper Gangetic Plain along the India-Nepal border.
Bor Tiger Reserve is a wildlife sanctuary that was declared as a tiger reserve in July 2014.
Rajaji National Park is an Indian national park and tiger reserve that encompasses the Shivaliks, near the foothills of the Himalayas. It is spread over 820 km2 and three districts of Uttarakhand: Haridwar, Dehradun, and Pauri Garhwal.
The Orang National Park is a national park in India located on the northern bank of the Brahmaputra River in Assam. It covers an area of 79.28 km2
The Kamlang Wildlife Sanctuary, established in 1989, is the 50th Tiger reserve in India
|51||Srivilliputhur – Megamalai (2021)
It is India’s 51st tiger reserve and 5th tiger reserve of Tamil Nadu. It is formed of combining two wildlife sanctuaries namely grizzled squirrel wildlife sanctuary and Megamalai wildlife sanctuary. On 6 April 2021, the Government of Tamil Nadu and the forest department approved the creation of a new Tiger Reserve in Tamilnadu, and on 11th of April 2021, a new tiger reserve is formed which is called as Megamalai Tiger Reserve. It is also called Srivilliputhur – Megamalai Tiger Reserve
|52||Ramgarh Vishdhari (2021)||Rajasthan|
|53||Guru Ghasidas National park and Tamor Pingla wildlife sanctuary||Chattisgarh|
CA/TS recognized tiger reserves:
India’s 14 Tiger Reserves are Global CA/TS recognized ( Global Conservation Assured|Tiger Standards (CA|TS).)
|8.||Valmiki Tiger Reserve||Bihar|
|12.||Bandipur Tiger Reserve||Karnataka|
|13.||Mudumalai Tiger Reserve||Tamil Nadu.|
|14.||Anamalai Tiger Reserve||Tamil Nadu.|
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