Samudrayan Mission:

Launched by: Jitendra Singh (Union Minister of State (Independent Charge) Earth Sciences

Launched Date: 29th October 2021

INDIA has launched its 1st manned Ocean Mission called “ Samudrayan” for deep dive to explore Ocean Resources under the Deep Ocean Mission undertaken by NIOT (National Institute of Ocean Technology) In Chennai Tamil Nadu.

With this Unique Technology INDIA has joined the elite club of countries such as the USA, RUSSIA, JAPAN, FRANCE, and CHINA  having such underwater vehicles for exploration under the deep ocean.

Central Government has approved the total budget of  Rs. 4077 Crore to spend under Deep Ocean Mission for 5 years.

Key Points:

  • About Samudrayan Mission:
    • Smudrayan Mission is India’s 1st unique manned ocean mission that aims to send men into the deep ocean for exploration and research of minerals by using submersible vehicles.
    • The primary aim of this mission is to explore and extract Polymetallic Manganese Nodules (PMN). These resources exist underwater at an approximate depth between 1000 to 6000 meters.
      • Polymetallic Manganese Nodules (PMN): Polymetallic Manganese Nodules are composed of minerals like manganese, nickel, cobalt, copper, and iron hydroxide. These metals are useful in manufacturing electronics devices, Smartphones, batteries, solar panels, etc.
    • Samudrayan Mission will be part of the Deep Ocean Mission of Rs. 6000 Crore and it is undertaken by NIOT (National Institute of Ocean Technology).
    • NIOT had developed a “Personnel Sphere” made of mild steel with local industry for an operational capability of 500 meters. It has been tested for its usage as per the International Classification and Certification Agency for Man-rated operation during this month’s sea trial using Ocean Research Vessel “Sager Nidhi “ in the Bay of Bengal.
      • Sagar Nidhi: Sagar Nidhi is a premier research vessel of the NIOT.
    • As per NIOT officials, Under Samudrayan Initiative, Matsya 6000 deep-sea vehicles will be developed. At present, its design phase has been completed and the development of the vehicle is started with the help of various organization ISRO, IITM and DRDO.
    • This program will consist of various manned and unmanned submersibles exploring the seabed.
      • Submersibles: A Submersible is a watercraft (watercraft also known as a water vessel) designed to operate underwater. The term submersible is often used to differentiate from other underwater vessels like Submarines. The submarine is a fully automated craft, capable of generating its own power and breathing air, whereas submersible is usually supported by a surface vessel, platform, shore team, or sometimes a larger submarine.
      • Seabed: The seabed is the bottom of the Ocean. All floors of the ocean are known as “seabeds”
  • Matsya 6000:
    • Matsya 6000 is a manned deepwater submersible vehicle that will be developed by NIOT indigenously with help of ISRO.
    • As per NIOT officials, Matsya 6000 deep-sea vehicles will undergo qualification trials by December of 2024.
    • It will be made up of titanium alloy, personnel sphere of 2.1-meter diameter enclosed space. It will be capable of carrying three human beings endurance of 12 hours and 96 hours in case of an emergency situation.
    • It will be capable to work underwater at a depth between 1000 to 6000 meters.
    • This deep-sea vehicle shall be maneuvered at deep seafloor with Six-Degree freedom using a battery-powered propulsion system for 4 Hours at 6000 meters depth.
    • The vehicle is a platform to carry any devices, sensors to the deep sea for doing observation/experiments in the presence of human beings.
  • Deep Ocean Mission :
    • Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of INDIA had launched the Deep Ocean Mission in January 2018 to improve the INDIA position in Ocean Research Field.
    • In June 2021, CCEA (Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs) chaired by PM Modi has approved the proposal of the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) on “Deep Ocean Mission” with a view to explore the Deep Ocean for resources and develop deep-sea technologies for sustainable use of ocean resources.
    • Deep Ocean Mission is a mission mode project to support the Blue Economy Initiatives of the Government of India.
    • The estimated cost of the Mission will be Rs. 4077 crore for a period of 5 years to be implemented in a phase-wise manner. The estimated cost for the first phase for the 3 years (2021-2024) would be Rs.2823.4 crore.
    • The Deep Ocean Mission consists of the following six major components:
      • Development of Technologies for Deep Sea Mining, and Manned Submersible
      • Development of Ocean Climate Change Advisory Services
      • Technological innovations for exploration and conservation of deep-sea biodiversity
      • Deep Ocean Survey and Exploration
      • Energy and freshwater from the Ocean:
      • Advanced Marine Station for Ocean Biology

References: PIB

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