Organs of the United Nations:
The United Nations (UN) has six main organs. Five of them – The General Assembly, The Security Council, The Economic and Social Council, The Trusteeship Council, and the Secretariat – are based at UN headquarters in NEW YORK. The Sixth, The International Court of Justice, is located in The Hague in the Netherlands. All Were established under the UN charter when the Organization was founded in 1945.
list of Organs Of the United Nations :
- General Assembly
- Security Council
- Economic and Social Council
- International Court of Justice
- Trusteeship Council
The General Assembly is the main deliberative, policymaking, and representative organ of the UN. All 193 Member states of the UN are represented in the General Assembly, making it the only UN body with universal representation.
Key Facts of General Assembly:
- Each year in September the full UN membership meets in the General Assembly Hall in New York for the annual General Assembly Session for general debates, which many heads of the state attend and address.
- Decisions on important questions, such as those on Peace and Security, Admission of New Members, and budgetary matters, require a two-thirds majority of the General Assembly. Decisions on other questions are by a simple majority.
- The General Assembly, each year, elects a General Assembly President to serve a one-year term of service and who presides over these meetings as a neutral party that represents the United Nations.
- Consists of all member states of the UN, each member nation can send five delegates but each nation has only one vote.
- The General Assembly meets in regular sessions beginning in Mid-September to December. Special sessions may be requested by the assembly, at the request of the Security Council, Or at the request of a majority of UN members.
- At the beginning of each regular session in September, the Assembly holds a two-week general debate at which time Heads of the State present their views on a wide range of issues of concern of the International Community, from War and Terrorism to Disease and Poverty.
Security Council is a UN organ that has primary responsibility under the UN charter to maintain International Peace and Security. It has 15 members ( 5 permanent and 10 non-permanent members). Each member has one vote.
Under the UN Charter, all member states are obligated to comply with Council decisions.
The Security Council takes the lead in determining the existence of a threat to the peace or an act of aggression. After that, It calls upon the parties to a dispute to settle it by peaceful means and recommends methods of adjustment or terms of the settlement.
In Some cases, the Security Council can resort to imposing sanctions or even authorizing the use of force to maintain or restore International Peace and Security.
The Security Council has a presidency, which rotates and changes every month.
Key Facts of Security Council :
- Security Council is the executive body of the UN. It consists of a total of 15 members, out of which 5 members are permanent members and the remaining 10 members are non-permanent.
- INDIA was elected to the UN Security Council (UNSC) as a non-permanent member, in the previous year on 17th June 2020. Its Two-Year team will begin on 1st January 2021.
- India became the President of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) for the very first time for the Month of August 2021.
- The USA, FRANCE, RUSSIA, the UK, and CHINA are permanent members.
- The 10 other non-permanent members are elected by the General Assembly for 2 years from among the member states on the basis of Geographical Representation.
- The permanent members of the Security Council have got Veto Power.
- Any matter supported by the majority of the members fails to be taken forward if a negative vote is cast by any of the permanent members.
The Security Council also makes recommendations to the General Assembly on the appointment of a new Secretary-General and on the admission of new members to the UN.
Economic and Social Council:
The Economic and Social Council is the principal body for Coordination, Policy Review, Policy Dialogue, and Recommendations on Economic, Social, and Environmental issues.
This council plays a major role in the implementation of internationally agreed development goals.
It serves as the central mechanism for activities of the UN system and its specialized agencies in the Economic, Social, and Environmental fields, supervising subsidiary and expert bodies.
It has 54 members, elected by General Assembly for overlapping three-year terms. It is the United Nations’ central platform for reflection, debate, and Innovate thinking on sustainable development.
Key Facts about Economic and Social Council :
- This organ of the UN consists of 54 representatives of the member countries elected by a two-thirds majority of the General Assembly.
- The main function is to achieve International cooperation by solving International Problems of Economics, Social, Cultural, and Humanitarian character.
- One-third of this council is elected every year for a period of three years and equal numbers retire annually.
International Court of Justice (ICJ):
The International Court of Justice is the principal judicial organ of the United Nation. The headquarter of the ICJ is at the peace palace in the Hague Netherlands. It is the only one of the SIX principal organs of the United Nation not located in New York USA.
The role or the main function of ICJ is, to settle, legal disputes submitted to it by States in accordance with international law and to give advisory opinions on the legal question referred to it by authorized United Nations Organs and Specialized agencies.
The International Court of Justice (ICJ) follows and functions in accordance with its laws which are passed by a legislative body.
Key Facts about International Court of Justice (IJC):
- It is the principal judicial organ of the United Nation.
- The headquarters of the ICJ is in The Hague Netherlands.
- The Court consists of 15 Judges.
- The Judges of the court are elected by the General Assembly along with the Security Council for a 9-year term.
Trusteeship Council :
The Trusteeship Council was established in 1945 by the UN Charter, Under Chapter XIII, to provide International supervision for 11 Trust Territories that have been placed under the administration of Seven member states, and ensure that appropriate steps were taken to prepare the Territories for self-government and independence.
By 1994 all Trust Territories had attained self-government or independence. The Trusteeship Council suspended its Operation on 1 November 1994.
By resolution adopted on 25 May 1994, the Trusteeship Council amended its rules and dropped the obligation to meet annually and agreed to meet as an occasion when required.
As per rule, the Trusteeship Council meeting can be called by its Common decision or the decision of its President, or at the request of a majority of its members or the General Assembly, or the Security Council.
Key Facts :
- Trusteeship Council consists of 14 members out of which five are permanent members of the Security Council.
- The Function of this organ is to provide for an International Trusteeship System to safeguard the interests of inhabitants of territories that are not yet fully self-governing and which may be placed there under individual agreements.
The Secretariat comprises the Secretary-General and tens of thousands of international UN staff members who carry out the day-to-day work of the UN as mandated by the General Assembly and the Organization’s other principal bodies.
The Secretary-General is the Chief Administrative Officer of the Organization, appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a Five-Year and it is a renewable term.
The Secretary-General is a symbol of the Organization’s ideals, and an advocate for all the world’s people, especially the poor and vulnerable.
UN staff members are recruited internationally and locally and work in duty stations and on peacekeeping missions all around the world. But serving the cause of peace in a violent world is a dangerous occupation. Since the founding of the United Nations, hundreds of brave men and women have given their lives in its services.
- Secretariat is the organ of the UN and It is the chief administrative office that coordinates and supervises the activities of the UN.
- The secretariat is headed by a Secretary-General who is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the security council.
- The Secretary-General of the UN is elected for 5 Years and is eligible for re-election.
Secretary Generals of the United Nations:
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