Dual Government in Bengal (1765-72)

Robert Clive was made Governor of Bengal after the Battle of Buxar, and the Company became master of Bengal after the battle. Robert Clive introduced the dual system of government i.e. the rule of two in Bengal- one is the Company and another is the Nawab.

The system of dual government in Bengal was active in the period of 1765 to 1972. It was abolished by Warren Hastings in 1772. The work was differentiated as follows:

Dual Government in Bengal (1765-72)

Dual Government in Bengal (1765-72)

Administration In Bengal Under Dual Government

Diwani and Nizamat came under the control of the Company.

    • Diwani: Collecting revenues
    • nizamat: Police and judicial function

The Company nominated the deputy subahdar for nizamat (The police and judicial function came under the deputy Subahdar nominated by Company).

They acquired the Diwani functions from the emperor, Which means the revenue collection came in hands of the Company,  and Nizamat functions from the subahdar of Bengal.

  • In this system, the Nawab was responsible for maintaining peace and order but depended upon the Company for both- funds and forces
  • The Company took army and revenue under its control.
  • For Diwani functions, the company appointed two deputy Diwans named:
    • Mohammad Raza Khan the deputy diwan for Bengal, also acted as deputy nizam or deputy subahdar.
    • Raja Sitab Roy for Bihar the deputy diwan for Bihar


  • The Dual government system proved disastrous for the people of Bengal. Public welfare and administration were totally ignored by both the Nawab and Company.
  • Warren Hastings (1772- 1785) then Governor-general, abolished the dual system in 1772, as the system of dual government led to an administrative breakdown and devastating for the public of Bengal.


Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Clive

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